IAS Current Affairs And News Analysis (11-07-2019)

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Current Affairs and News Analysis (11-07-2019)

2019  ozone hole is the smallest on record

Worker safety code Bill gets Cabinet approval

Part of Prelims and mains GS II social justice GS III labour reforms  

In news

  • A Bill that looks to blend 13 work laws into one code on word related wellbeing, wellbeing and working conditions that would apply to all foundations with at least 10 laborers was endorsed by the Union Cabinet.
  • The Code on Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Bill, 2019, which would affect “40 crore disorderly laborers”, was affirmed at a Cabinet meeting.
  • The Bill was the second of four proposed codes that plan to combine 44 work laws, with the Code on Wages Bill, 2019 that was endorsed on before being the first.
  • The choice will improve the inclusion of the security, wellbeing and working conditions arrangements complex.

Applicable to

  • While the code will be appropriate to all exchanges, including IT foundations and administration division, where in excess of 10 specialists are utilized.
  • It will be pertinent to mines and docks that utilize even one specialist.
  • The code likewise confined guidelines for ladies laborers working night shifts.

Bengal port records country’s highest sea-level rise in 50 years

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Global warming and climate change 

In news

  • As per the information from the Ministry of Earth Sciences, four ports-Diamond Harbor (5.16 mm every year), Kandla (3.18 mm), Haldia (2.89 mm)and Port Blair (2.20 mm)- recorded a higher ocean level ascent than the worldwide normal.
  • Chennai and Mumbai recorded an ocean level ascent far underneath the worldwide and the national midpoints at 0.33 mm every year (1916-2005) and 0.74 mm (1878-2005) individually.
  • While late investigations uncover that ocean level ascent in the nation has been evaluated to be 1.3 mm every year along India’s coasts during the last 40-50 years.

Cause and effects 

  • Ocean level ascent is said to be connected with an unnatural weather change and according to the fifth evaluation report of the International Panel on Climate Change, the worldwide ocean level was ascending at a normal pace of 1.8 mm every year in the course of the only remaining century.
  • Rising ocean levels can worsen the effects of seaside perils, for example, storm flood, tidal wave, beach front floods, high waves and waterfront disintegration in the low lying waterfront territories notwithstanding causing a slow loss of waterfront land to ocean.
  • The ocean level ascent is higher in West Bengal, especially in the Sunderbans delta due to the deltaic dregs testimony because of the blending of freshwater and saline water.
  • A dangerous atmospheric devation not just aims the dissolving of ice and ice sheets yet additionally prompts inward development of water in seas and along these lines an ascent in the ocean level.

Single tribunal to hear water disputes

Part of Prelims and mains GS II interstate relations and governance  

In news

  • The Union Cabinet has endorsed the Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019 that will help settle questions identifying with waters of between State waterways and stream valleys.
  • The Bill tries to correct the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 to streamline the mediation of between State waterway water questions.

Need to amend 1956 Act

  • There are around twelve courts that presently exist to determine questions among States on sharing water from waterways normal to them.
  • The independent council so imagined will have a changeless foundation, office space, and framework in order to hinder the need to set up a different court for each water question – a tedious procedure.
  • The Bill can likewise influence the arrangement of the individuals from different courts and has the arrangement to have a specialized master as the leader of the council.
  • Presently all councils are staffed by individuals from the legal executive, designated by the Chief Justice.

Adjudication process

  • A key element of the Bill is the constitution of a solitary court with various Benches, and the setting of exacting courses of events for settling.
  • The Bill likewise proposes a Dispute Resolution Committee set up by the Central Government for agreeably settling between State water debates inside year and a half.
  • Any question that can’t be settled by arrangements would be alluded to the court for its mediation.
  • The question so alluded to the court will be appointed by the director of the council to a Bench of the court for mediation.

(MAINS FOCUS)


NATIONAL

TOPIC: General studies 3

  • Challenges to internal security
  • Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges
  • Security challenges and their management

The growing power of the lumpen 

Introduction

  • Expanding instances of horde brutality in the general public dependent on separation on various fronts have raised worries about peace circumstance in the nation including the security of the defenseless areas of the general public.

A rising graph

Studies of hate crimes in India show that they have steadily risen over the past five years.

  • Amnesty International India recorded 721 such occurrences somewhere in the range of 2015 and 2018.
  • A year ago alone, it followed 218 detest wrongdoings, 142 of which were against Dalits, 50 against Muslims, 40 against ladies, and eight against Christians, Adivasis, and transgenders.
  • The more typical loathe violations, they found, were respect killings and ‘dairy animals related savagery’, that was uncommon prior however has gotten progressively visit in the course of recent years.

One of the causes and solution

  • Overall information show that despise discourse supports or legitimizes demonstrations of savagery and an atmosphere of exemption.
  • France has a draft Bill to disallow despise discourse, and Germany has just sanctioned one.

Supreme Court direction

  • Supreme Court on account of Tehseen Poonawala v Union of India, has given a 11-point solution to preventive, therapeutic and correctional measures and has requested that Parliament administer a different offense for lynching and give satisfactory discipline to the equivalent.

Do you know?

Separate law on mob lynching by Manipur 

  • On the lines of Supreme Court judgment, State Government of Manipur has enacted a different law to make lynching a criminal offense.
  • Meaning of Mob according to Manipur law – The Act has characterized lynching in a far reaching way and spreads numerous types of despise wrongdoings. It covers any demonstration or arrangement of demonstrations of brutality or helping, abetting such act/acts whether unconstrained or arranged, by a crowd on the grounds of religion, race, position, sex, spot of birth, language, dietary practices, sexual direction, political alliance, ethnicity or some other related grounds.
  • According to the law, horde implies a gathering of at least two people, collected with a typical expectation of lynching. Be that as it may, the law doesn’t cover single abhor violations did by one person.

Punishments Provided under the Manipur Law

  • The unfortunate casualty experiencing hurt: For a term which may stretch out to 7 years + fine, which may reach out up to Rs. 1 lakh
  • The injured individual experiencing appalling hurt: For a term which may stretch out to 10 years + fine, which may reach out up to Rs. 3 lakhs
  • The demise of the person in question: Rigorous detainment forever + fine up to Rs. 10 lakhs

Committee headed by Home Secretary on Mob Lynching

  • Four Member Committee of secretaries headed by Home Secretary was framed in July 2018 to investigate the episodes of crowd savagery and lynchings and submit proposals on approaches to handle the test.
  • The board of trustees has presented its report to the Group of Ministers (GoM), headed by Home Minister who will currently look at the proposals of this board.
  • The Committee was established in wake of Supreme Court judgment where the Court guided the Center to draft solid enactment to make lynching a different offense and furthermore to take preventive measures to control the spread of phony messages via web-based networking media stages after a progression of horde lynching occurrences occurred.

Responsibility of states

According to the Constitutional plan, ‘Police’ and ‘Open Order’ are State subjects. State Governments are liable for controlling wrongdoing, keeping up lawfulness, and securing the life and property of the residents. They are enabled to sanction and implement laws to control wrongdoing in their locale.

Conclusion

  • For a demographically assorted nation, for example, India, detest violations, including wrongdoings of disdain, are a calamity.
  • Every one of our strict and position networks number in the millions, and violations that are coordinated against any of these gatherings could bring about an extent of offense that affects viciousness, even fear based oppression.
  • Far less different nations than India are as of now enduring the aftereffect of loathing ‘moving into the standard’, as UN Secretary-General António Guterres as of late featured.

Connecting the dots:

For a demographically diverse country such as India, hate crimes are a disaster. Discuss.


NATIONAL

TOPIC:

General studies 1

  • Population and associated issues
  • Poverty and developmental issues

General studies 2

  • Issues relating to poverty and hunger

The malaise of malnutrition

Introduction

Another report, ‘Nourishment and Nutrition Security Analysis, India, 2019’, created by the Government of India and the United Nations World Food Program, illustrates yearning and lack of healthy sustenance among kids in huge pockets of India.

Vicious cycle poverty, malnutrition

  • The report shows the least fortunate areas of society trapped in a snare of destitution and unhealthiness, which is being passed on from age to age.
  • Moms who are eager and malnourished produce kids who are hindered, underweight and improbable to create to accomplish their full human potential.
  • As per an examination in the Lancet, these impeded kids are probably going to do ineffectively in school and in this manner have low salaries, high fruitfulness, and give poor consideration to their youngsters, accordingly adding to the intergenerational transmission of destitution.

Effects of malnourishment on cognitive development

  • The impacts of malnourishment in a little kid are not only physical.
  • A creating mind that is denied of supplements doesn’t arrive at its full mental potential.
  • As indicated by the Lancet study, undernutrition can influence intellectual improvement by making direct auxiliary harm the mind and by impeding newborn child engine advancement.
  • This, thusly, influences the youngster’s capacity to learn at school, prompting a lifetime of neediness and absence of chance

Progress so far

  • India has for quite some time been home to the biggest number of malnourished kids on the planet. Some advancement has been made in diminishing the degree of ailing health.
  • The extent of kids with constant lack of healthy sustenance diminished from 48% percent in 2005-06 to 38.4% in 2015-16.
  • The level of underweight kids diminished from 42.5% to 35.7% over a similar period.
  • Iron deficiency in little youngsters diminished from 69.5% to 58.5% during this period. Be that as it may, this advancement is little.

An ambitious target

  • The organization’s National Nutrition Mission (renamed as Poshan Abhiyaan) intends to diminish upsetting by 2% consistently, chopping down the degree of ruined children in the masses to 25% by 2022.
  • A year after it was impelled, State and Union Territory governments have quite recently used 16% of the advantages assigned to them.
  • Propped rice and milk were to be introduced in one region for each State, this had not been done.
  • Anganwadis are essential to the flow of organizations to mothers and youths. In any case, various States, including Bihar and Odisha, which have huge vulnerable peoples, are doing combating to set up working anganwadis, and enroll staff.

Pattern of socio-economic exclusion

  • Lack of healthy sustenance is an impression of age-old examples of social and monetary prohibition. Over 40% of kids from Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes are hindered.
  • Near 40% of youngsters from the Other Backward Classes are hindered.
  • The absence of nourishment in their youth years can lessen their psychological just as physical advancement and sentence them to life in the edges of society.

The problem is access to food

  • As Amartya Sen noted, starvations are caused not by deficiencies of nourishment, yet by lacking access to nourishment.
  • For poor people and minimized, access to nourishment is obstructed by social, regulatory and monetary hindrances
  • On account of kids and their moms, this could be anything from non-working or careless governments at the State, area and neighborhood levels to dug in social dispositions that see poor people and minimized as not exactly rise to residents.

Conclusion

UN report punctures the picture of a country walking towards success. It brings up assurance and moral issues about the idea of a state and society that, following 70 years of freedom, still denounces countless its most unfortunate and helpless residents to lives of yearning and franticness. The most unfortunate two-fifths of the nation’s populace, that is still to a great extent immaculate by the cutting edge economy which the remainder of the nation possesses.

Connecting the dots:

In spite of fast monetary development, declining levels of neediness, enough nourishment to send out, and a variety of government programs, lack of healthy sustenance among the most unfortunate stays high. Remark.


(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Q.1) Consider the following statements about Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956,

  1. It provides for single tribunal to hear water disputes 
  2. Tribunal is to be headed by technical expert.

Select the incorrect statements

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements about labour reforms  in India,

  1. Four proposed codes aim to merge 44 labour laws.
  2. The code will be applicable to all trades, including IT establishments and the service sector, where more than 10 workers are employed.

Select the correct statements

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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