UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (14-01-2020)

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (14-01-2020)

upsc exam current affairs 14-01-2020

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 14-01-2020

UPSC exam current affairs 14-01-2020 The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Sabarimala case: Supreme Court not to review the Sabarimala case, to examine ‘larger issues’
  • Retail inflation: Retail inflation at a 5-year high of 7.3% in December
  • Central accident database management
  • Indian Economy
  • Reform of grain management system

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (14-01-2020)

Sabarimala case: Supreme Court not to review the Sabarimala case, to examine ‘larger issues’

Part of: GS Prelims –Fundamental Rights and GS-II- secularism

In news:

  • SC said its goal was not to audit the Sabarimala ladies passage case however look at “bigger issues” of law emerging from practices, for example, the restriction of ladies from entering mosques and sanctuaries, female genital mutilation among Dawoodi Bohras and the prohibition on Parsi ladies who wedded between confidence from entering the fire sanctuary.

From Mains  point of view:

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 14th January 2020
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 14th January 2020

From Prelims point of view:

ARTICLE 26: FREEDOM TO MANAGE RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS  

Subject to open request, ethical quality and wellbeing, each strict category or any segment thereof will have the right—

  • to build up and keep up foundations for strict and magnanimous purposes
  • to deal with its very own undertakings in issues of religion;
  • to claim and obtain mobile and relentless property; and
  • to regulate such property as per

ARTICLE 14: EQUALITY BEFORE LAW

The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

ARTICLE 25: FREEDOM OF RELIGION

  • Article 25 expresses that each individual is “similarly qualified for an opportunity of still, small voice” and has the option “to maintain, rehearse and proliferate religion” of one’s decision.
  • Rehearsing religion or the demonstration of engendering it ought not, be that as it may, influence the “open request, ethical quality and wellbeing.”
  • The Article doesn’t put any limitation on the legislature with regards to making any law to direct “monetary, money related, political or other mainstream” exercises, which might be related to strict practice.
  • As per Article 25, the doors of Hindu strict foundations ought to be opened to each area of Hindus.
  • Here the term ‘Hindus’ likewise incorporates people who claim Sikh, Jain or Buddhist religion. Similar remains constant for the term ‘Hindu strict organizations.

Retail inflation: Retail inflation at a 5-year high of 7.3% in December

Part of: GS Prelims –Inflation and GS-III- Economy

In news:

  • Retail inflation ascended to a five and a half year high of 7.35% 
  • Released by the National Statistical Office 
  • Retail inflation was only 2.11% in last year 

From Prelims point of view:

National Statistical Commission

  • The new NSO as an organization was visualized right off the bat by Rangarajan Commission to actualize and keep up factual models and arrange measurable exercises of Central and State offices as set somewhere near the National Statistical Commission (NSC).
  • This commission had additionally prescribed setting up of the NSC, headed by an individual with a Minister of State-level assignment, to fill in as a nodal and enabled body for all center measurable exercises of the nation.
  • As per an ongoing request, NSO will be shaped with the merger of NSSO and CSO under MoSPI.
  • This ongoing rebuilding is by all accounts response to the acquiescences offered by the part and acting Chairman of the NSC prior this year.

What Is the Consumer Price Index (CPI)?

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure that inspects the weighted normal of costs of a crate of purchaser merchandise and enterprises, for example, transportation, nourishment and therapeutic consideration. It is determined by taking value changes for everything in the foreordained bin of products and averaging them.
  • Changes in the CPI are utilized to survey value changes related to the typical cost for basic items;
  • the CPI is one of the most oftentimes utilized insights for recognizing times of swelling or collapse.

Central accident database management

Part of: GS Prelims –Policy and GS-II- Policy & Schemes 

In news:

  • The administration propelled a focal mishap database the board framework that will help in dissecting reasons for street crashes and in contriving security mediations to lessen such mishaps in the nation.
  • The IT apparatus, known as the Integrated Road Accident Database (IRAD) created by the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IIT-M)
  • Executed by the National Informatics Center.
  • Venture upheld by the World Bank.

National Informatics Centre (NIC): 

  • National Informatics Center (NIC) is an appended office under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India.
  • NIC gives a foundation to help bolster the conveyance of Government IT administrations and conveyance of a portion of the activities of Digital India

Manual scavengers: Maharashtra, Gujarat lag behind in compensation for sewer deaths

Part of: GS Prelims –Schemes and GS-II- vulnerable sections

In news:

Central Monitoring Committee reviews the implementation of the manual scavenging prohibition law

From  Prelims point of view:

Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013: 

  • The demonstration tries to strengthen this boycott by precluding manual searching in all structures and guarantees the recovery of manual scroungers to be recognized through an obligatory study.
  • Precludes the development or upkeep of insanitary toilets.
  • Precludes the commitment or work of anybody as a manual forager infringement could bring about a years’ detainment or a fine of INR 50,000 or both.
  • Precludes an individual from being locked in or utilized for risky cleaning of a sewer or a septic tank.
  • Offences under the Act are cognizable and non-bailable.
  • Requires an overview of manual foragers in urban and provincial territories inside a period bound structure.

National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK):

The National Commission for Safai Karamchari was built up in the year 1993 according to the arrangements of the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis Act, 1993, for a time of three years for example up to 31st March, 1997.

  • According to Section 1 (4) of the Act, it was to stop to exist after 31st March 1997, be that as it may, legitimacy of the Act was reached out up to March, 2002, and afterwards up to February, 2004 vide Amendment Acts went in 1997 and 2001 individually.
  • The Act stopped to have an impact from March 2004. After that, the residency of the NCSK has been reached out as a non-statutory body now and again (aggregate of multiple times) The residency of the present Commission is up to March 2022.
  • The Commission is a Non-Statutory body of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India.

(MAINS FOCUS)


Indian Economy

TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Indian Economy and issues identifying with arranging, activation, of assets, development, improvement and business.

Middle Income Trap

Context:

  • Gross domestic product development for FY20 is probably going to come in at 5%, an 11-year low. Ostensible GDP development will probably be at in excess of a four-decade low.
  • Aside from the discussion on whether the stoppage is recurrent or auxiliary, there is likewise worry among the business analysts about the risks of Middle-Income trap in medium to the long haul.

What is Middle-Income trap?

  • In 2006, market analysts Indermit Gill and Homi Kharas at the World Bank instituted the expression “center pay trap” while taking a shot at development systems for East Asian economies.
  • Basically, low-pay nations with modest work and access to instant innovation develop quick and start getting wealthier.
  • In any case, as they arrive at center salary status, they will in general stoppage as they lose a portion of their points of interest. They neglect to merge with wealthier countries and don’t get past center salary status.
  • It is a status of low efficiency and dug in disparity.
  • Mexico and Brazil are exemplary instances of such nations.
  • A couple, for example, South Korea, have gotten away from the snare. China is at the cusp.

On what basis are countries usually categorized?

World Bank has utilized the 2018 information of gross national salary (GNI) per capita to classify nations into following four classifications

  1. Low salary: Countries with GNI per capita is up to $1,025.
  2. Lower center pay: Those with GNI per capita from $1,026 to $3,995. Ex: India – it’s per capita salary in 2018 was $2,020, at the midpoint for the lower-centre pay class.
  3. Upper center pay: Countries with GNI Per capita somewhere in the range of $3,995 and $12,375 are upper center salary Ex: Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, China.
  4. High pay: Per capita salary above $12,375 makes a nation high pay. Ex: US, Germany, Japan, Korea.

The way the World Bank’s pay order framework works is that as economies develop, the edges for these four classifications likewise change. The limit for the low-pay class in 1988 was just $545.

Generally, the lower and upper center pay limits have expanded at 2% every year in the course of the most recent three decades. Over this period, India’s per capita salary developed at a yearly pace of about 5.6%.

Cause of Concern for India

  • In the event that we accept that World Bank edges and India’s salary per capita develop at a similar pace as they have in the previous 30 years, it will take India until 2038 to arrive at the lower end of the upper center pay edge.
  • In like manner, insights uncover that even in 2050, India would be well beneath Brazil and South Africa.
  • India’s development since the 1990s was on the rear of utilization by the main 100 million Indians. The imbalance has enlarged from that point forward and subsequently, the future development needs to originate from base segments of the cultural pyramid.
  • For this to occur there must be satisfactory interest from these areas of society and along these lines sufficient employments and rising livelihoods.

Way Ahead

  • In this manner there must be a complete motivation of strategy and institutional change to make a unique free enterprise, else there is a danger of a Latin Americanization of India’s way
  • This includes changes in training, social insurance, skilling, agrarian, legal and administrative changes.

Connecting the dots

  • Impact on slowdown on India’s diplomatic might.
  • Doubling of Farmers Income and Make in India initiative
  • Political and Constitutional federal structures which enable comprehensive changes

Indian Economy

TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues identified with immediate and circuitous homestead sponsorships and least help costs; Public Distribution System-goals, working, confinements, patching up; issues of cradle stocks and nourishment security.

Reform of grain management system

Context

In the second quarter of the 2020 financial year, GDP development rate has dived to 4.5 % and the agribusiness GDP (GDPA) development is at insignificant 2.1 %.

What are the reasons for Slowdown?

  • One of the fundamental explanation is the low interest in the economy.
  • The interest is low a direct result of the wages have stay quelled especially the country livelihoods (Consecutive Bad Monsoons). Therefore, interest in fabricated merchandise, lodging and different products have stayed low.
  • Aside from the above referred to recurrent explanation, there is additionally auxiliary explanation – essentially supply-side imperatives like wasteful framework arrange which raises the expense of merchandise and administrations along these lines affecting the intensity of the item.

What measures the government has taken recently?

  • The administration reported corporate tax reductions which mean to help the venture cycle.
  • Government has additionally declared a venture bundle for the foundation of about Rs 102 lakh crore throughout the following five years, which infers dramatically increasing the development in infra-speculations from its present levels.
  • The administration likewise plans to cut personal duty levels in the up and coming spending plan to help request in the economy (as it leaves more cash in the hands of individuals to spend)

Possible consequences of the above measures:

  • Boosting request can likewise cause swelling (past the limit level of 6 percent to be kept up by the RBI).
  • There is the test of not slipping on the financial deficiency focus of 3.3 percent, despite the fact that the CAG has just demonstrated that the genuine monetary shortage of the nation is significantly more on the off chance that one records for the credits taken by numerous PSUs
  • Trouble in raising assets to subsidize the monstrous foundation venture (102 lakh crore more than five years)

Possible Way Out:

  • One of the approaches to raise (spare) Rs 50,000 crore for every annum to back foundation ventures without causing high expansion or without breaking the monetary shortage target is by tending to wastefulness in the grain the board framework under the National Food Security Act (NFSA)
  • The NFSA gives certain amounts of wheat and rice to 67% of the populace at Rs 2/kg and Rs 3/kg separately – the financial expense of these to the Food Corporation of India is Rs 25/kg and Rs 35/kg individually.
  • This has prompted an arrangement of Rs 1.84 lakh crore for nourishment appropriation in the last Union spending plan
  • The grain stocks with the FCI are definitely more than twofold the cushion stock standards as on January 1, consistently.

The reason for inefficiency in grain management system: 

  • The acquisition for wheat and rice (paddy) stays open-finished, yet the disbursal of those stocks remains to a great extent confined to the open conveyance framework (PDS).
  • The open market activities (OMO) are significantly less contrasted with what is expected to sell the over the top stocks.
  • The cash-secured these unreasonable stocks (past the cradle standard) is more than Rs 1 lakh crore.
  • On the off chance that the administration chooses to sell half of it, it can gather Rs 50,000 crore to fund in any event half of its framework ventures

The way forward (As recommended by Ashok Gulati):

  1. While the poor under the Antyodaya class should continue getting the most extreme nourishment endowment, for other people, the issue cost ought to be fixed at ~50% of the acquisition cost (as was done under Atal Bihari Vajpayee for the BPL classification).
  2. Utmost financed grain dispersion under NFSA to 40 % of the populace as opposed to the current 67%
  3. Point of confinement the acquisition of rice especially in the north-western conditions of Punjab and Haryana where the groundwater table is draining quick, and welcome private segment investment in grain the board

Connecting the dots

  • Doubling of Farmers Income
  • Shanta Kumar Committee recommendations on PDS reform

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion etc. (Article 15 of the Constitution of India) is a Fundamental Rights classifiable under: 

(a) The Right to Freedom of Religion   

(b) The Right against Exploitation

(c) The Cultural and Educational Rights

(d) The Right to Equality


Q.2) One of the implications of equality in society is the absence of 

(a) Privileges                                                                                

(b) Restraint

(c) Competition                                                                            

(d) Ideology


Q 3) Which one of the following Muslim rulers was hailed as the ‘Jagadguru’ by his Muslim subject because of his belief in secularism? 

(a) Hussain Shah                                                                                            

(b) Zain-ul-Abidin

(c) Ibrahim Adil Shah                                                                                    

(d) Mahmud II


Q 4) In India, inflation is measured by the: 

(a) The wholesale Price Index number

(b) Consumers Price Index for urban non-manual workers

(c) Consumers Price Index for agricultural workers

(d) National Income Deflation


Q 5) A rapid increase in the rate of inflation is sometimes attributed to the “base effect”. What is “base effect”?

 (a) It is the impact of drastic deficiency in supply due to failure of crops

(b) It is the impact of the surge in demand due to rapid economic growth

(c) It is the impact of the price levels of the previous year on the calculation of inflation rate

(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context


Q 6)   With reference to India, consider the following statements: 

  1. The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) in India is available on a monthly basis only.
  2. As compared to the Consumer Price Index for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW), the WPI gives less weight to food articles.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                                                                                                         

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2                                                                                              

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q 7)   Consider the following statements about the National Informatics Centre 

  1. Objective to a single point to access the information and services of the Government of India
  2. Government Instant Messaging System (GIMS)’is developed by Kerala unit of National Informatics Centre (NIC)

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                                                                                                         

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2                                                                                              

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q 8 )   Rashtriya Garima Abhiyaan’ is a national campaign to 

(a) rehabilitate the homeless and destitute persons and provide them with suitable sources of livelihood

(b) release the sex workers from their practice and provide them with alternative sources of

livelihood

(c) eradicate the practice of manual scavenging and rehabilitate the manual scavengers

(d) release the bonded labourers from their bondage and rehabilitate them



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