UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (15-02-2020)

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (15-02-2020)

upsc exam current affairs 15-02-2020

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 15-02-2020

UPSC exam current affairs 15-02-2020 The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Following SC rap, telcos asked to pay AGR dues immediately
  • A new structure for Military Affairs
  • India’s position on the Global Hunger Index alarming: VP
  • Governance

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 15-02-2020 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (15-02-2020)


Following SC rap, telcos asked to pay AGR dues immediately

In news:

  • The Supreme Court requested scorn procedures inception against Telcom organizations for neglecting to pay even a “solitary penny” to the legislature in Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) levy, worth ₹1.47 lakh crore, regardless of an October 2019 judgment.

Timeline:

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 15th February 2020

SRC: The Hindu

From Prelims  Point of view:

Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR)

  • The use and permitting expense that telecom administrators are charged by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT)
  • partitioned into range use charges and permitting expenses ( 3-8 %)

The bone of contention: 

The definition of AGR has been under litigation for 14 years.

  • According to DoT, the charges are determined dependent on all incomes earned by a telco – including non-telecom related sources, for example, store premiums and resource deals.
  • According to Telcos, demand that AGR ought to involve just the incomes created from telecom administrations.

AGR is very Important in Mains Perspective too, it will soon be covered in Mains section 


India’s position on the Global Hunger Index alarming: VP

In news:

Vice president:

  • India positions 102nd on the Global Hunger Index, Despite high nourishment creation.
  • Dietary security expects measures to improve protein and nutrient lacks
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 15th February 2020

SRC: The Hindu

From Prelims  Point of view:

Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report

  • Arranged by the Concern Worldwide (an Irish office) and the Welt Hunger Hilfe (a German association)
  • The report depends on four GHI markers to be specific, undernourishment, youngster hindering, kid squandering, and kid mortality.
  • India’s youngster squandering rate was amazingly high at 20.8% – the most elevated
  • India’s rank has slipped from 95th situation (in 2010) to 102nd (in 2019)

Child wasting

  • Youngster squandering alludes to the portion of kids younger than five who are squandered, i.e, they have low weight concerning their tallness, reflecting intense undernutrition.

A new structure for Military Affairs

In news:

  • The Defense Acquisition Council (DAC), acquirement cases will be set up as organized by the Chief of Defense Staff (CDS).
  • Formal structure involving common and military authorities for the Department of Military Affairs (DMA) headed by the CDS (At present, we have a between time structure, they have no monetary force)
  • The proposed DMA will have a Secretary, Transformation and Coordination, which will be the Chief of Integrated Defense Staff (IDS), Additional Secretary and five Joint Secretaries.
  • Extra Secretary will be a three-star official while the Joint Secretaries incorporate three officials, one from each help of the position of Major General or comparable, Major Gen.

From Prelims Point of view:

Department of Military Affairs:

  • The DMA will be the fifth division in the Ministry after the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense Production, the Department of Defense Research and Development and the Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare.
  • The DMA’s order incorporates advancing jointness in obtainment, preparing and staffing for the Services; encouraging the rebuilding of the military directions for ideal usage of assets by achieving jointness in activities, including through the foundation of joint/theater directions and advancing the utilization of indigenous hardware.

The DMA would deal with 

  • The military;
  • The coordinated base camp of the Ministry, including the Army, Naval and Air and protection staff central station;
  • The Territorial Army; and
  • Works identifying with the three administrations and obtainment select to them, aside from capital acquisitions

Defence Acquisition Council

  • Most elevated dynamic body in the Defense Ministry
  • Chooses new arrangements and capital acquisitions for the three administrations (Army, Navy and Air Force) and the Indian Coast Guard.
  • Priest of Defense is the Chairman of the Council.
  • Shaped, after the Group of Minister’s proposals on ‘Improving the National Security System’, in 2001, post-Kargil War (1999).

Indian pangolin

In news:

  • researchers have radio-labelled the Indian pangolin, a jeopardized creature
  • Labelling the creature will help comprehend the propensities for the isolated, nighttime creature
  • Radio-labeling is a piece of a joint task by the woodland office and non-benefit association, the Wildlife Conservation Trust (WCT).

IASBaba’s Value addition

Ninth ‘World Pangolin Day’ on 15th February 2020

  • Celebrated in February consistently to bring issues to light of pangolins and unite partners to help shield these species from annihilation.

From Prelims Point of view:

Indian pangolin: 

  • Has thick textured skin
  •  Pursued meat and utilized in customary Chinese prescription.
  • Pangolins are among the most dealt untamed life species on the planet.
  • Out of the eight types of pangolin, the Indian and the Chinese pangolins are found in India.
  • Both these species are recorded under Schedule I Part I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

IUCN Red List

  • Indian Pangolin: Endangered
  • Chinese Pangolin: Critically Endangered

(MAINS FOCUS)


Governance

Topic: General Studies 2:

  • Statutory, administrative and different semi-legal bodies
  • Races: Salient highlights of the Representation of People’s Act.

Criminalisation of Politics

Context

A two-Judge Bench of Supreme Court conveyed a Judgment on the hatred petitions with respect to the resistance of the bearings of a Constitution Bench of SC in Public Interest Foundation and Ors. v. Association of India, 2018

The 2018 Judgement had given the following pronouncements

  • There is an absence of data about rising criminalisation of Politics among the populace
  • Quick Criminalisation of Politics can’t be captured by only precluding corrupted administrators yet should start by purifying Political Parties
  • Requested Political Parties to distribute the criminal subtleties of their applicants in their individual sites and print just as electronic media for open mindfulness.

Increase in the incidence of criminals in politics

YearPercentage of MPs with Criminal Cases pending against them
200424%
200930%
201434%
201943%

The Court in its present judgment gave the accompanying bearings in the activity of its sacred powers under Articles 129 and 142:

  1. It will be obligatory for ideological groups [at the Central and State political decision level] to transfer on their site definite data in regards to people with pending criminal cases, who have been chosen as applicants. They likewise need to make reference to explanations behind such determination over individuals with a spotless foundation
  2. The reasons as to the determination of competitors will be regarding the capabilities, accomplishments and value of the applicant concerned, and not simple “winnability” at the surveys
  3. This data will likewise be distributed in the paper (one neighbourhood and one national) and on the official online life foundation of the ideological group, including Facebook and Twitter.
  4. These subtleties will be distributed inside 48 hours of the determination of the competitor or at the very least two weeks before the primary date for documenting of selections, whichever is prior.
  5. The ideological group concerned will at that point present a report of consistency with these headings with the Election Commission inside 72 hours of the choice of the said up-and-comer.
  6. The resistance of these bearings will be brought to notice of SC by Election Commission on the grounds of Contempt of Court

Merits of the Judgement

  • It is in accordance with a progression of decisions planned for saving the immaculateness of the political race process: Asset divulgence, NOTA choice, Special courts for fast removal of cases including chose delegates
  • It expands the data accessible for Citizens which empowers him to settle on an educated decision while picking his delegate.
  • Gets auxiliary changes the appointive framework which is a long haul in nature

Criticism of the Judgement

  • Legal Overreach: A political race is an issue to be chosen gatherings, applicants and voters. The courts ought to have nothing to do with the issue, aside from specifical situations where the Representation of the People Act is disregarded
  • Compromises self-rule of Election System: By making them enforceable under Article 142 of the Constitution – the inability to deliver requested records dangers pulling in Contempt of Court – SC takes steps to undermine the self-rule of the arrangement of decisions and a chosen lawmaking body.
  • Encroach on ECI: Candidates are as of now required to record their subtleties in sworn statements with the Election Commission. This request could encroach upon the job of the survey guard dog.
  • Determination of competitors is the emotional issue: The reasonableness of applicants is an abstract issue, and the avocation required by the SC must be a sentiment, and not a goal actuality, making the court’s structure adequately unenforceable.

Conclusion

SC is at risk for exceeding breaking points and limits, rather it ought to be restricting itself to applying moral power on ideological groups. De-criminalisation of legislative issues can’t be accomplished by legal fiat alone, rather there must be changed from inside the Political gatherings.

Connecting the dots!

  • Internal Democracy of the Political Parties
  • The decline in the institution of Parliament

Governance

Topic: General Studies 2:

  • Government strategies and intercessions for advancement in different divisions and issues emerging out of their plan and execution.
  • Mindfulness in its fields

Digital ID systems and Algorithmic Governance

Context

Without precedent for the world, the court in the Netherlands halted an advanced distinguishing proof plan for reasons of rejection. This is of noteworthiness particularly when personality, citizenship and security are relevant inquiries in India and around the world

What was the scheme?

  • SyRI (System Risk Indicator) was created by The Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs in 2014 to get rid of the individuals who are destined to submit misrepresentation and get government benefits
  • Enactment passed by the Dutch Parliament permitted government organizations to share 17 classifications of information about welfare beneficiaries, for example, charges, land vaults, business records, and vehicle enrollments with a privately owned business.
  • The organization, called “The Intelligence Agency”, utilized a calculation to break down information for four urban areas and ascertain hazard scores.
  • Raised hazard scores were sent to applicable government arms, which stores these on government databases for a limit of two years. The administration, in that timespan, could open an examination on the focused on the individual.

What were the arguments in court?

  • Common society gatherings and NGOs propelled a legitimate assault on this instance of algorithmic administration
  • The charge was that the calculation would start partner neediness and outsider statuses with misrepresentation chance.
  • The Dutch government guarded the program in court, saying it forestalled misuse and went about as just a beginning stage for additional examination rather than the last assurance.
  • The administration likewise wouldn’t unveil all data about how the framework settles on its choices, expressing that it would permit gaming of the framework.
  • The court found that dark algorithmic dynamic puts residents off guard to challenge the subsequent hazard scores.

The judgement of the Court

  • The court decided that SyRI was violative of standards of straightforwardness and information minimisation spread out in their General Data Protection Regulation.
  • While the Hague region court discovered utilizing new innovation to control misrepresentation was worthy, it held SyRI was excessively intrusive and violative of the security ensures

Significance of the Judgement

  • This choice sets a solid lawful point of reference for different courts to follow, particularly when Digital ID frameworks are being turned out at a quick pace in places like Kenya, Philippines, Nigeria, Mexico, and the sky is the limit from there
  • This is one of the principal times a court anyplace has halted the utilization of computerized innovations by welfare experts on human rights grounds

Impact on India

  • Like the Supreme Court’s Aadhaar judgment setting limits on the ID’s utilization, the Hague Court endeavoured to offset social enthusiasm with individual security.
  • Be that as it may, the Aadhaar judgment was not with respect to algorithmic dynamic; it was about information assortment.
  • India’s pending information insurance guideline, being broke down by a Joint Select Committee in Parliament, could gain from the judgment about the need to control governments utilization of computerized innovations for welfare exercises.

Conclusion

The decision exhibits that parliaments should look carefully at the manners by which governments use innovation in the standardized savings framework, to secure the privileges of their residents.

Did You know?

  • Because of the General Data Protection Regulation, European tech activities have been slowed down, remembering a facial acknowledgement framework for understudies in Sweden and France.
  • In any case, endeavours to boycott facial acknowledgement in urban areas, for example, San Francisco, USA has not had a similar accomplishment as in Europe because of provisos in US guidelines
  • A framework to some degree resembling the Dutch SyRI framework was a hazard scoring programming being utilized by US court frameworks to set up bail times. The US Supreme Court declined to hear a related case in 2017.

Connecting the dots!

  • Justice B.N.Srikrishna Committee Report
  • Facial recognition used on large scale by China on Uyghurs
  • Algorithmic Governance 

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q 1. With reference to India, which one of the following statements is NOT correct? 

  1. IPCL is India’s largest petrochemical company
  2. RIL is the largest private sector company in India
  3. MTNL is listed on NYSE
  4. BSNL is the first telecom service organization in India to launch a nationwide cellular service at one time

Q 2. Consider the following statements. 

  1. The number of the post office in India is in excess of 1 lakh.
  2. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was formed in the year 2000.
  3. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was established in the year 1997.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1, 2 and 3 
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 1 only 
  4. 3 only.

Q3. Which of the following is/are the indicator/indicators used by IFPRI to compute the Global Hunger Index Report? 

  1. Undernourishment
  2. Child stunting
  3. Child mortality

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3 
  4. 1 and 3 only

Q 4. Consider the following statements: 

  1. Toothless mammals such as Pangolins are not found in India.
  2. Indian Pangolin is the only species of Pangolins found in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only 
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


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