UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-01-2020)

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-01-2020)

upsc exam current affairs 09-01-2020

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 09-01-2020

UPSC exam current affairs 09-01-2020 The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • NASA reported the discovery of an Earth-size planet
  • Foreign direct investment (FDI): Ordinance enabling FDI in coal mining
  • Indian Polity Federalism

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 09-01-2020 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-01-2020)

NASA reported the discovery of an Earth-size planet

Part of: GS Prelims – National Income and GS-III- Science & Technology

In News

  • NASA announced the disclosure of an Earth-size planet, named TOI 700 d.
  • Found by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) crucial.

Do you know?

  • Life on Earth began in water, and water is a vital element forever.
  • At the point when researchers scan for the plausibility of outsider life, any rough exoplanet in the tenable zone of its star is an energizing find.

Value addition for Prelims

Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission

  • Space telescope for NASA’s Explorers program,
  • Intended to look for exoplanet

Goldilocks zone:

  • Likewise called the tenable zone.
  • It is the scope of circles around a star inside which a planetary surface can bolster fluid water given adequate barometrical weight.

Exoplanet :

  • Additionally, Extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System.
  • the least huge planet known is Draugr
  • HR 2562 b is the most gigantic planet known.

Foreign direct investment (FDI): Ordinance enabling FDI in coal mining

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Economy

In News

  • The choice was taken to support the household generation of Coal to one billion tons by 2023-24 as it prompts less expensive information sources and increments in intensity

About Ordinance:

  • Mandates are laws that are declared by the President of India on the proposal of the Union Cabinet, which will have a similar impact as an Act of Parliament.
  • They must be given when Parliament isn’t in session.
  • They empower the Indian government to make a quick authoritative move.

Foreign direct investment (FDI)

  • Speculation from a gathering in one nation into a business or organization in another nation.
  • Outside direct speculation can be made by extending one’s business into a remote nation or by turning into the proprietor of an organization in another nation.

North East Natural Gas Pipeline Grid: CCEA approves Viability gap funding

Part of: GS Prelims- Geography and GS-III- Economy, GS-I- Geography

In News

  • The 1,656-km pipeline will associate Guwahati in Assam to significant urban areas in the district, for example, Itanagar, Dimapur, Kohima, Imphal, Aizawl and Agartala covering each of the eight states in North-Eastern locale.
  • The task is basic towards actualizing the administration’s Hydrocarbon Vision 2030 for the North-East.
  • Usage Agency: Indradhanush Gas Grid Limited (IGGL)- a joint endeavour organization of five CPSEs (IOCL, ONGC, GAIL, OIL and NRL).

Migration and Mobility Partnership Agreement signed between India and France

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-II- International Affairs

In News

  • The Agreement was marked in March 2018 during the State Visit of the French President to India.
  •  The legitimacy of the Agreement: seven years.
  • It consolidates arrangement for programmed recharging and a checking system through a Joint Working Group.
  • Centrality: It is a significant achievement in improving individuals to-individuals contacts, encouraging versatility of understudies, scholastics, scientists and gifted experts and reinforcing participation on issues identified with sporadic relocation and human dealing between the different sides.

Amma Vodi’ scheme

Part of: GS Prelims- Government Schemes and GS-II- Governance, Education

In News

  • Under the plan, budgetary help of ₹15,000 will be given (legitimately stored into a ledger) to about 43 lakh moms or gatekeepers who send their kids to class (government, private supported, private independent schools/junior universities)
  • Vagrants and road youngsters concentrating in schools through deliberate associations have additionally been secured under the plan and the cash will be given to the associations.
  • Just for the meriting segments: School and school dropouts are not qualified for this plan nor are government representatives and annual citizens.
  • Effect of the Scheme: Student enrolment has just expanded by 30% in the present scholastic year after the declaration of the plan.

MAINS FOCUS)


Indian Polity Federalism

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure.

Naga Peace Process: Stuck due to inflexibility of NSCN(I-M)

Context:

The administration reported ‘Christmas Gift’ cutoff time for closing converses with Naga bunches has gone with no solid outcomes on the advancement settled on since the administration Framework Agreement with NSCN(I-M) in 2015.

Origin of the Issue and the timeline of the events

The affirmation of Naga Nationalism started during the Colonial time frame and proceeded in Independent India. The following is the pictorial portrayal of the course of events.

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 9th January 2020
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 9th January 2020

What are the key demands of the Naga groups? 

  • Greater Nagalim (sovereign statehood) i.e redrawing of boundaries to bring all Naga-inhabited areas in the Northeast under one administrative umbrella.
    • It includes various parts of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Assam and Myanmar as well.
  • Naga Yezabo (Naga Constitution) 
  • Naga national flag.

What was the Ceasefire Agreement which was signed in 2015?

  • The Government of India perceived the extraordinary history, culture and position of the Nagas and their conclusions and desires. The NSCN(Isak-Muivah) additionally valued the Indian political framework and administration.
  • Noteworthiness: It shows the administrations solid goal to determine the long-standing issue and selection of a political quiet methodology by Naga Society to satisfy their desires.

Reasons for not accepting Naga Demand of Separate Flag & Separate Constitution

  • Backwards: Yezhabo is far less liberal than what Indian Constitution directly offers for Naga individuals. It is backward and a portion of its arrangements are against present-day Constitutional estimations of freedom, uniformity and rule of law.
  • Difficulties of Wider Acceptance: Yezhabo likewise proposes Naga pioneer Muivah as the all-encompassing figure of Naga governmental issues, improvement and fate which won’t be satisfactory to Naga Citizenry which is spread in connecting conditions of Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.
  • Sets a Bad Precedent: Acceding to the interest of Separate Flag will set a risky point of reference whereby different states likewise request comparative arrangements.
  • Character Politics: Acceding to these requests is much the same as giving racial and ethnic personality an equivalent balance with National Identity which will go about as an impetus to Identity Politics in rest of India.
  • Debilitates National Integrity: The general National Consciousness and National reconciliation procedure will be debilitated.
  • The disappointment of Article 370: Working of Article 370 which had accommodated separate Flag and Constitution has demonstrated that such sort of measures has not yielded results yet has rather extended the hole between territorial society and Indian standard.

Why the agreement has not been finalised yet?

  • It was marked uniquely with NSCN (I-M) which in uneasy truce since 1997. The understanding barred about six additional gatherings, other than Naga populace. This has debilitated the procedure.
  • Rigidity by NSCN(I-M) over the quarrelsome issue of Naga Flag and Naga constitution—Yezhabo. Muivah who is presently 85 has concluded he can’t kick the bucket leaving an inheritance of giving up.
  • Association government’s and the North-East’s political vitality has been impressively spent on mollifying the feelings of dread over CAA (Citizenship Amendment Act) and the proposed NRC (National Register of Citizens) in this manner weakening the attention on Naga harmony talks.

Steps were taken by the government over the last 2-3 years to fast track the process of finalising the agreement

  • chats with I-M has unmistakably spelt out demobilization, restoration and absorption of units and pioneers through enlistment in paramilitary powers and political structures (extended assembly in Nagaland)- in this way guaranteeing smooth mix into Indian political framework
  • Authoritative and regulatory self-governance for Naga districts outside Nagaland has been a piece of converses with the Naga administration.
  • A breakaway group of I-M’s main adversaries, NSCN’s Khaplang, joined the harmony procedure with the administration in 2019.
  • Government-drove outreach projects to expedite board non-Naga individuals in Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, and Assam, promising a lot of advancement as an exchange off for offering Naga individuals in these states progressively authoritative portrayal and managerial independence.
  • The State government that has chosen to set up the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN) however later because of weight from different parts, the choice has now been put on hold.

Way Ahead

  • The legislature will shave away at I-M’s political, managerial and military structure and endeavour to lessen I-M’s weight alongside Muivah’s and furthermore feed different lines of the initiative.
  • Arriving at an accord with more extensive Naga Citizenry and furthermore persuading the non-Naga individuals in bordering conditions of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Assam is important to guarantee practical serviceable understanding.

Connecting the dots:

  • What would be the consequence if Naga peace deal is not signed at the earliest in the backdrop of growing tensions over CAA-NRC in Northeast?
  • Impact of acceding to demand of Nagalim on other States in North East.

Indian Polity Federalism

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure.


Indian Constitution – Unitary tilt & Future Federal Challenges

Context:

  • Kerala Legislative Assembly passing a goal expressing that the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) passed by Parliament repudiates the essential qualities and standards of the Constitution.
  • West Bengal Government had put against CAA ads on its sites utilizing open subsidizes which were later pulled back on request of High court.
  • A few States have proclaimed that they will avoid NPR (National Population Register) practice which will be utilized as the reason for NRC (National Register of Citizens)

In this foundation where Center and States are on clashing stands, it gets imperative to investigate the Constitutional highlights of Federalism.

The underneath pictorial portrayal clarifies the conceivable purpose behind the rise of such sort of restriction by States.

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 9th January 2020
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 9th January 2020

Some of the features of Federalism in India:

  • Division of Powers: Presence of Union List, State list and Concurrent list
  • Written Constitution
  • The supremacy of the Constitution
  • The rigidity of the Constitution
  • Independent Judiciary
  • Bicameralism

However, there are various other features that make the Constitution tilted towards Centre (Unitary bias)

  • Single Constitution
  • Single Citizenship
  • Integrated Judiciary
  • The flexibility of the Constitution under Article 368
  • Appointment of State Governors by the State
  • All India Services – Controlled by Centre but deputed in State administrative setup
  • Emergency Provisions
  • No equality of State representation in Rajya Sabha
  • Parliament’s authority over State List
  • Veto Over State Bills
  • Article 256 of the Constitution commits the State government to guarantee the execution of the laws made by Parliament. On the off chance that the State government neglects to do as such, the Government of India is engaged to give “such bearings to a State as may show up… to be fundamental” in any event, bringing about the rejection of the State government and inconvenience of Presidents Rule under Article 356 and 365.

Why was the Constitution structured with Unitary Bias?

The Indian Constitution did not depend on American Model yet dependent on Canadian Model. The motivation behind why India received Canadian model was on the grounds that:

  • The manner in which governments are shaped is by method for crumbling and not by the method for understanding among the states meeting up like in American Federation.
  • The States reserve no privilege to withdraw from the alliance. Giving this privilege would have additionally fortified the “fissiparous inclinations” in the recently conceived Nation which was reeling under the delayed consequences of Partition. Consequently to maintain a strategic distance from such withdrawal propensities a Strong focus was made.

Working of Federalism

  • Notwithstanding, Indian working of Constitution has indicated that Federalism isn’t simply constrained to lawful space where there is a division of Power between Center and State governments however Federalism has peculated into Public investment in the Democratic procedure.
  • Federalism has been reflected in individuals’ democratic conduct. There are instances of gigantic vote swings among national and State races, isolated by just a couple of months, in the similar voting public. This shows individuals make a differentiation between territorial concerns and National concerns.

As appeared in the chart over, the rise of Single Party Dominance framework since 2014 alongside clearing of Opposition Space (mostly because of decrease in Parliament) has permitted territorial and State governments to consume this space.

This resistance by State governments currently represents a danger to Federalism and questions the predisposition accommodated in the first Constitution particularly when India is incorporated now like never before (declining fissiparous inclinations)

The decline of Parliament involves

  • Utilizing disturbance as a strategy to contradict administrative exchanges and slow down administrators motivation.
  • Abuse of Office of Speaker to push forward decision gathering’s plan without significant discussions (ex: Certifying bills as Money bill to stay away from an investigation by Rajya Sabha).
  • Oppression of Political Parties: The nearness of Tenth Schedule denies administrators to uninhibitedly air their feeling. Rather, they should follow their Party’s directs subsequently organizing Political Party’s enthusiasm far beyond the Public intrigue.
  • Criminalization of Politics: 43% of the seventeenth Lok Sabha individuals (2019 general races) have criminal accusations against them as per Association of Democratic changes.
  • Less number of time spent on administrative consultations: indeed, over the most recent 10 years, the lower House has met for a normal of 70 days every year.
  • Absence of Leader of Opposition since sixteenth Lok Sabha: With no ideological group increasing 10% of the quality of the Lower House, the position has stayed empty. This has viably debilitated the restriction voice in different stages and advisory groups which consider government responsible.

But All is not Gloomy, this is because 

  • There is pushed by the Central government on Cooperative and Competitive Federalism, notwithstanding having a lion’s share in Lok Sabha.
  • Political and Administrative initiative understands that there must be decentralization where States will go about as motors of development and Center will go about as a facilitator of development. The 42% devolution of assets from the Central pool of assessments to State is an impression of this opinion.
  • The case of the GST Council obviously shows that the Constitution gives an outlet to Sates to connect cooperatively with the Center in order to get its interests tended to.
  • Federalism is a Basic Structure of Constitution: Examples of Indian Judiciary switching a portion of the Central government’s choices like the burden of Article 356, turning around President’s or Speaker’s choice (Arunachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka) shows that Federalism will be indispensable of our framework.

Connecting the dots

  • Will the emergence of single-party system good or bad for Democracy and economic development?
  • Is opposition necessary in a Democratic Polity especially it when it creates obstacles in economic development weakening Indian hand to deal with China?

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) The term ‘Goldilocks Zone’ is often seen in the news in the context of  (UPSC 2015)

(a) the limits of the habitable zone above the surface of the Earth

(b) regions inside the Earth where shale gas is available

(c) search for the Earth-like planets in outer space

(d) search for meteorites containing precious metals 


Q2) Which of the following is/are the possible consequence/s of heavy sand mining in riverbeds?

  1. Decreased salinity in the river
  2. Pollution of groundwater
  3. Lowering of the water table

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) 1 only 

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only 

(d) 1 ,2 and 3


Q3)Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: 

List-I (Minerals)                        List-II (Mining area)

  1. Graphite                                    1. Bellary
  2. Lead                                       2. Didwana
  3. Salt                                         3. Rampa
  4. Silver                                      4. Zawar

Select the correct answer using the code given below :

(a) A-3; B -4; C-1; D-2     

(b) A-1; B -4; C-2; D-3

(c) A-3; B-1; C-4; D-2         

(d) A-2; B-3; C-1; D-4


Q4) Ecological research in the course of the last quarter of the century has built up the malicious impacts of living space fracture because of mining, parkways and such different interruptions on woodlands. At the point when an enormous square of timberlands gets divided into little bits, the edges of every one of these bits come into contact with human exercises bringing about the debasement of the whole woodlands. Progression of forested scenes and passageways gets upset influencing a few eradication inclined types of untamed life. Natural surroundings fracture is in this manner considered as the most genuine danger to biodiversity preservation. Impromptu awards of woodland terrains to mining organizations combined with uncontrolled illicit mining is irritating this danger.

What is the central focus of this passage?

(a) Illegal mining in forests

(b) Extinction of wildlife

(c) Conservation of nature

(d) Disruption of habitat


Q5) What is the purpose of maintaining the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors?

  1. Preservation of biodiversity.
  2. Management of mineral resources.
  3. Grant of forest lands for human activities.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

(a) 1 only 

(b) 1 and 2

(c) 2 and 3 

(d) 1, 2 and 3



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