Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 11-02-2020
UPSC exam current affairs 11-02-2020 The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.
- Review court can refer questions to larger Bench
- Indian Polity & Governance
- Science & Tech
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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 11-02-2020 are followed in the part below:
UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (11-02-2020)
- NASA is sending another laser-toting robot as one of seven instruments onboard the Mars 2020 wanderer Called SuperCam.
- It fires lasers to contemplate shakes and will search for indications of previous existence on Red Planet.
- The robot is utilized for considering mineralogy and science, It may assist researchers with discovering indications of fossilized microbial life on Mars.
- SuperCam incorporates a mouthpiece so researchers can listen each time the laser hits an objective.
Supreme Court upholds changes to SC/ST atrocities law
- Incomparable Court maintained a 2018 revision which banished people blamed for perpetrating outrages against those having a place with the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes from getting expectant bail.
From Prelims point of view:
Various forms of atrocities against SC/ST
Position conflicts: Tensions caused by upper stations and Dalits because of the apparent upward versatility of Dalits.
Dairy animals Vigilantism: Dalits and Muslims are forced to bear this vigilantism.
Respect Killing: an outrageous type of Moral Policing. (Dread of losing the standing status which presents to them a few advantages, individuals regularly carry out this shocking wrongdoing when their child or little girl wed somebody from outside their rank)
Social blacklist: Khap panchayat/position panchayat alienating Dalits them from society. (Law Commission drafted the Prohibition of Unlawful Assembly (Interference with the Freedom of Matrimonial Alliances) Bill, 2011 that tried to pronounce that panchayats unlawfully).
Manual searching: Manual rummaging is connected to a position framework where the alleged low standings were relied upon to play out this activity.
Constitutional provisions against SC/ST atrocities:
Article 17 of the constitution forbids the act of distance.
Article 46 advances the instructive and financial interests of SCs, STs, and other more fragile segments of the general public and shields them from social bad form and misuse.
Article 338 – National Commission for Scheduled Castes
- Examine and screen all issues identifying with the sacred and other lawful protections for the SCs and to assess their working.
- Ask into explicit grievances as for the hardship of rights and defends of the SCs.
338-A – National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
*Mains perspective will be covered in Mains section
Review court can refer questions to larger Bench
- A nine-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court maintained the choice of the five-judge Sabarimala Review Bench.
- To allude to bigger Bench inquiries on the ambit and extent of strict opportunity rehearsed by numerous beliefs the nation over.
- Seat confined seven inquiries of law which it would choose now.
From the prelims point of view:
Article 25 :
- Article 25 expresses that each individual is “similarly qualified for the opportunity of inner voice” and has the option “to purport, rehearse and spread religion” of one’s decision.
- Rehearsing religion or the demonstration of spreading it ought not, be that as it may, influence the “open request, profound quality and wellbeing.”
- The Article doesn’t put any limitation on the administration with regards to making any law to direct “monetary, budgetary, political or other mainstream” exercises, which might be related to strict practice.
- As per Article 25, the doors of Hindu strict organizations ought to be opened to each area of Hindus.
- Here the term ‘Hindus’ likewise incorporates people who pronounce Sikh, Jain or Buddhist religion. Similar remains constant for the term ‘Hindu strict organizations.
U.S. nod for air defence system sale to India
- U.S. Branch of State has endorsed the potential offer of a $1.867 billion Integrated Air Defense Weapon System (IADWS) to India.
- The Integrated Air Defense Weapon System, otherwise called the National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System (NASAMS), gives coordinated air rocket protection.
- The IADWS framework incorporates radar, launchers, focusing on, and direction frameworks propelled medium-extend aerial rocket (AMRAAM) and Stinger rockets, and related hardware and backing
- The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM).
- It is an American past visual-extend aerial rocket (BVRAAM) able to do all-climate day-and-night activities shoot and-overlook weapon
- AMRAAM is the world’s generally well known past visual-run rocket
SRC: Click here
National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System was created by the USA in association with Norway. NASAMS-II is an overhauled adaptation of NASAMS of Norway called Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System.
Indian Polity & Governance
Topic: General Studies 2:
- Government approaches and mediations for advancement in different divisions and issues emerging out of their structure and usage.
Reservations in Promotions
A two-judge Supreme Court judgment stated that
- People don’t have a major right to guarantee the reservation in advancements.
- States are not lawfully bound to give reservations in advancements. On the off chance that it means to do as such, at that point it needs to legitimize it through quantifiable information about the deficiency of their portrayal in broad daylight administrations.
- Courts couldn’t give a mandamus guiding the States to give reservation in advancement.
It shows that governmental policy regarding minorities in society programs permitted in the Constitution stream from “empowering arrangements” and are not rights thusly.
What was the background of the judgement?
- Uttarakhand High court request coordinating information assortment on the sufficiency or insufficiency of the portrayal of SC/ST applicants in the State’s administrations.
- In any case, the Supreme Court struck the request in light of the fact that once there is a choice not to expand reservation in advancement, the subject of such information isn’t pertinent
Constitutional Provisions with regard to reservations
- Article 16(4) – Empowers State to give reservation to any regressive classes of residents
- Article 16(4a) – presented in 1995 by 77th Constitutional Amendment Act – Empowers State to give reservation in advancement for SC and ST.
Both the above arrangements engage the State from reserving a spot if, “in the assessment of the State”, these gatherings are “not satisfactorily spoke to”
Previous Judgements on this matter
In its milestone 1992 choice in Indra Sawhney versus Union of India, the Supreme Court had held that reservations under Article 16(4) must be given at the hour of passage into taxpayer-supported organization however not in issues of advancement.
On June 17, 1995, Parliament, acting in its constituent limit, received the 77th Constitutional correction by which condition (4A) was embedded into Article 16 to empower reservation to be made in advancement for SCs and STs.
The Supreme Court in M. Nagaraj v. Association Of India 2006 case while maintaining the sacred legitimacy of Art 16(4A) held that it is an empowering arrangement for example State will undoubtedly reserve such spot in advancements. Be that as it may, in the event that it looks to do as such, at that point, it should gather quantifiable information on three parameters —
- The backwardness of the class
- The inadequacy of the representation of that class in public employment;
- The general efficiency of service would not be affected
In Jarnail Singh versus Lachhmi Narain Gupta instance of 2018, the Supreme Court held that booking in advancements doesn’t require the state to gather quantifiable information on the backwardness of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
The court maintained the contention that once different rank gatherings were recorded as SC/ST, this consequently inferred they were in reverse.
Issues with the present judgement
- Not in the soul of governmental policy regarding minorities in society: The legislature doesn’t need to show any sort of avocation in choosing not to actualize reservation in advancement.
- This is a murky type of working and gives off an impression of being passing by the apparent aim of the law, not its soul of giving governmental policy regarding minorities in society.
- Additionally, since a 5-judge seat of the Supreme Court has as of now maintained reservation in advancements, it isn’t certain whether a two-judge seat can make a translation that is in fluctuation with this
- It implies that the legislature isn’t committed to accompanying governmental policy regarding minorities in society (in advancements) if the social circumstance that keeps a few segments in reverse endures
- Reservation is no more observed by the Supreme Court as an exemption to the fairness rule; rather, it is an aspect of uniformity.
- In any case, prior decisions gave a feeling that reservations were a privilege for more vulnerable areas of society however that it ought to be seen uniquely as an empowering arrangement.
- States should come up quantifiable information to screen if reservation approaches are without a doubt profiting the segregated segment of society and in the event that not, at that point make essential strategies.
Connecting the dots!
- Creamy layer in SC/ST
- Reservation for localities- legislation brought by AP, Maharashtra
Science & Tech
Topic: General Studies 3:
- Science and innovation advancements and their applications and impacts in regular day to day existence.
Genome India Project
The Genome India Project is a cooperation of 20 foundations including the Indian Institute of Science and some IITs, whereby in the main stage the genomic information of 10,000 Indians will be classified
By sequencing the genome, analysts can find the elements of qualities and recognize which of them are basic forever.
What is a Genome?
- Each living being’s hereditary code is contained in its Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA), the structure squares of life.
- A genome is characterized as a living being’s finished arrangement of DNA, including the entirety of its qualities. It contains the entirety of the data expected to assemble and keep up that life form.
- In people, a duplicate of the whole genome — in excess of 3 billion DNA base sets — is contained in all cells that have a core.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) – from 1990 to 2003 – was a worldwide program that prompted the interpreting of the whole human genome. India was additionally a teammate for this program
What is the need for Genome India project if HGP has mapped the human genome?
- 95% of the genome tests accessible utilize the white, Caucasian genome as the base. Most genomes have been sourced from urban white-collar class people and are not so much observed as agent and valuable for India explicit requirements.
- India’s undertaking point is to at last form a lattice of the Indian reference genome, to see completely the sort and nature of ailments and qualities that involve the differing Indian populace
- For instance, if the Northeast observes a propensity towards a particular sickness, intercessions can be made in the locale, helping general wellbeing, which makes it simpler to fight the disease.
Benefits/Significance of Indian Project
- Customized Medicine: Propensities to sickness can be mapped to varieties across genomes and subsequently general wellbeing intercessions can be focused on better, and maladies have foreseen before they create
- More profound Understanding of Ecology: Traversing from the world’s tallest mountain range to warm oceans through numerous bio-zones, this venture could give a lot of data on the interchange of species and hereditary gatherings inside them.
- Worldwide Cooperation: The Indian undertaking will intend to inconceivably include to the accessible data the human species and advance the reason, both as a result of the size of the Indian populace and the decent variety here.
Challenges to the Genome India Project
- Therapeutic Ethics: The venture points just to make a database of hereditary data and quality change is certifiably not an expressed goal. Be that as it may, the nearness of such wide information upgrades the danger of specialists secretly performing quality alteration.
- Information and Storage: After an assortment of the example, the namelessness of the information and inquiries of its conceivable use and abuse should be tended to particularly since India has not passed the information protection bill.
- The dread of Scientific Racism: logical investigations of qualities and characterizing them could strengthen racial/position generalizations and take into account legislative issues and history to gain a racial wind.
- Political Misuse: In India, a lot of legislative issues is presently on the lines of who are “indigenous” individuals and who are most certainly not. A Genome India Project could add a hereditary measurement to the cauldron.
Genome India Project gives a chance to India to gain ground in the fields of biotechnology and social insurance. In this manner, it should be conveyed with vital defends about information and moral issues.
Did you know?
- The Shenzen-based researcher made the world’s first quality altered children.
- He Jiankui dazed the world when he declared in 2018 that twin young ladies had been brought into the world with changed DNA to make them HIV-safe
Connecting the dots!
- Agriculture and Genetic engineering
- Biotechnology and issue of equity.
(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)
Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)
Q.1) what is ‘SuperCam’, recently in the news?
- Electric plane tested by NASA
- new laser-toting robot the Mars 2020 rover by NASA
- Space observatory launched by China
- Reusable rocket designed by ISRO
Q.2 NASA’s Deep Impact space mission was employed to take detailed pictures of which comet nucleus?
- Halley’s Comet
- Tempel 1
Q.3. Right to Privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of Right to Life and Personal Liberty. Which of the following in the Constitution of India correctly and appropriately imply the above statement?
- Article 14 and the provisions under the 42nd Amendment to the Constitution
- Article 17 and the Directive Principles of State Policy in Part IV
- Article 21 and the freedoms guaranteed in Part III
- Article 24 and the provisions under the 44th Amendment to the Constitution