UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (23-07-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 23-07-2019

Current Affairs and News (23-07-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Chandrayana-2
  • Cryptocurrencies to be banned
  • Conservation efforts to revive the gharial population
  • An unbalanced view of the technical interventions in MGNREGA

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 23-07-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (23-07-2019)

Chandrayana-2

Part of: GS Prelims and Main GS Paper III- Science and Technology

Key PT Pointers:

  • Chandrayaan-1 (just Orbiter) propelled in 2008 was ISRO’s first strategic the moon
  • Chandrayaan-2 comprises of an Orbiter, Lander (named as Vikram) and Rover (named as Pragyan), all outfitted with logical instruments to examine the moon
  • The lander and wanderer are intended to work for just 14 days(1 lunar day), while orbiter will stay in circle for a year
  • With Chandrayaan-2, India will turn out to be just the fourth nation on the planet to land a rocket on the moon.
  • Chandrayaan-2 will make an arrival at a site close to the South post of the moon, where no prior strategic gone,
  • The south shaft of the moon
  • Holds the plausibility of the nearness of water
  • It is additionally expected to have antiquated rocks and cavities that can offer signs of the history of the moon, and furthermore contain intimations to the fossil records of early nearby planetary group.

Cryptocurrencies to be banned

Part of: GS Prelims and Main GS Paper III- Science and Technology

Key Pointers:

  • Subhash Chandra Garg Committee was established on November 2, 2017, to investigate the legitimateness of digital forms of money and blockchain.
  • The report says cryptographic forms of money don’t have any inborn estimation of their own and do not have any of the properties of cash. They neither go about as a store of significant worth nor are they a mechanism of trade in themselves
  • The panel accordingly prescribed that private cryptographic forms of money be restricted in India.
  • It has, in any case, said the administration should keep a receptive outlook on the potential issuance of cryptographic forms of money by the Reserve Bank of India.

Conservation efforts to revive the gharial population

Part of: GS Prelims and Main GS Paper III- Environment and Conservation

In News

  • Five gharials were reproduced at the Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha and discharged into the Satkosia crevasse of Mahanadi.
  • The gharials are independently checked and fitted with radio transmitters for future ID and following of their relocation course
  • Gharials are “fundamentally jeopardized” types of crocodiles.
  • Odisha is the main state in India having every one of the three animal groups — gharial, mugger and saltwater crocodile.

(MAINS FOCUS)


SOCIAL JUSTICE/GOVERNANCE

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Governance and related issues
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions, and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

An unbalanced view of the technical interventions in MGNREGA

Context:

  • Monetary Survey has exhibited an uneven perspective on the specialized intercessions in MGNREGA
  • The Survey draws vigorously from the Indian School of Business’ working paper titled “A Friend Indeed: Does The Use of Digital Identity Make Welfare Programs Truly Counter-Cyclical?”

Concerns:

  • Financial overview introduces a slanted and lopsided perspective on the program’s specialized intercessions as opposed to taking an exhaustive perspective on the execution.
  • The Survey totally disregards various occasions where innovation has brought about infringement of laborers’ privileges under the MGNREGA.

About MNREGA

  • The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, prior known as the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was given seventh September 2005 to enlarge work age and standardized savings in India. It covers all locale of India aside from the ones with 100% urban populace.
  • “Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”, MGNREGA), is an Indian work law and government managed savings measure that intends to ensure the “Right to Work”.

MGNREGA History:

  • In 1991, the P.V Narashima Rao government proposed a pilot conspire for creating work in provincial regions with the accompanying objectives:
  • Work Generation for farming work during the lean season.
  • Foundation Development
  • Upgraded Food Security
  • This plan was known as the Employment Assurance Scheme which later developed into the MGNREGA after the merger with the Food for Work Program in the mid-2000s.

Goals of MGNREGA:

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has the accompanying goals:

  • MGNREGA ensures “Right To Work” for at any rate one individual from family for 100 days every year, 150 days for SC/STs during non-horticultural seasons.
  • Business gave inside 15 days of enlistment, neglecting to which the administration will give joblessness wages to work-searchers
  • Increment financial security
  • Abatement movement of work from rustic to urban regions

Changes in MNREGA structure

  • By 2009-10, MGNREGA compensation was just 90% of market compensation for guys, however, 26% higher than advertise compensation for females.
  • By 2011-12, they were lower than advertise compensation for both classification of laborers, yet for females, they were near market levels.
  • The 2017-18 PLFS gauges show that private market compensation for guys was higher than MGNREGA compensation by 74%, and female market compensation was higher than MGNREGA compensation by 21%.
  • Obviously, no male specialist is going to request MGNREGA work when he can get a lot higher everyday wage with a similar exertion.
  • Be that as it may, ladies proceed to request and work under MGNREGA, however, showcase compensation is higher, due to non-accessibility of work and segregation just as prohibition from the private work advertise.

Six reasons why the Economic Survey’s introduction of the MGNREGA is misdirecting

  1. Absence of sufficient budgetary portion, pending liabilities, and low wages.
  • 20% of the Budget designation in every one of the most recent five years is of pending pay liabilities from earlier years
  • MGNREGA compensation in numerous States is about 40% lower than the Ministry of Labor’s national the lowest pay permitted by law.
  • Rather than adequately subsidizing MGNREGA, a legitimate right, in the midst of extreme dry spell, there is lopsided consideration by the legislature
  • 2. Distortion of persistent innovative intercessions in the MGNREGA since its beginning
  • Electronic subsidizes move began as far back as in 2011 through the Electronic Fund Management System (eFMS), which got emblematic of the Direct Benefit Transfers (DBT).
  • In 2016 National Electronic Fund Management System (N-eFMS) has been
  • The Survey utilizes the expression “High mountain” for Aadhaar-connected installments and conflates it with the DBT.
  • The converging of two terms keeps one from making a legitimate appraisal on the impact that various intercessions have had.
  1. 3. The Survey makes solid statements that opportune installment of wages has emphatically affected laborer interest.
  • The Survey makes asserts on the decrease in installment delays because of the presentation of Aadhaar
  • Compensation installments to MGNREGA laborers occur in two phases
  • First stage: it is the time taken by the squares to produce the electronic Funds Transfer Orders (FTO) and send it carefully to the Central government.
  • Deferrals in the main stage have decreased, those in the subsequent stage keep on being unsatisfactorily high(takes over 50 days).
  • 4. An expansion sought after for and supply of work in dry spell influenced regions to Aadhaar disregarding other vital elements.
  • Legal regulatory mandates, which happened after Aadhaar was presented, assumed a significant job in the expansion in the MGNREGA work take-up in dry spell territories.
  • Examples:
  • In Rajasthan-67% expansion in business produced and a record number of family units having finished 100 days of work under the MGNREGA as a piece of ‘work request campaign’
  • In Karnataka-There is a three-overlay increment in work age in Karnataka in 2019 contrasted with 2018.
  • 5. The Survey legitimately recognizes the idea of positive focusing of the MGNREGA — with ladies, Dalits, and Adivasis profiting the most — it unfairly credits it entirely to the presentation of Aadhaar.
  • 6. Aadhaar-connected installments recognizing “phantom recipients” is misrepresented as an RTI inquiry indicated that they represented uniquely about 1.4% of complete families in 2016-17.

Conclusion

  • Ignoring the essential issues, carefully choosing examinations and utilizing defective investigations to legitimize technocracy is a case of moral loss of motion.
  • The Economic Survey harps about a badly structured mechanical pipeline, the truth of the matter is that a milestone work program is being put on a ventilator.

Connecting the dots:

  • “Innovation is neither great nor awful; nor is it unbiased” Elucidate?
  • In the Light of continuation of MNREGA in the present year. Talk about its accomplishments and constraints
  • MNREGA-is an incredible case of proactive exposure of data through its Management Information System (MIS). Talk about
  • MNREGA, in spite of the considerable number of restrictions and disappointment, it is in concurrence with supportable advancement. Explain.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)

Q.1) Consider the following statements about Chandrayana -2

  1. It is being launched from Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Kerala
  2. It is launched by GSLV MK-III, which is also its first operational flight
  3. China’s Change 4 was the first spacecraft to achieve a soft landing on the far side of the moon

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Bhitarkanika National Park

  1. It is a national park located in Kendrapara district of Odisha
  2. The sanctuary is the second largest mangrove ecosystem in India
  3. It is said to house 70% of the country’s estuarine or saltwater crocodiles

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements about Cryptocurrency

  1. Cryptocurrencies use decentralized technology to let users make secure payments and store money without the need to use their name or go through a bank.
  2. They run on a distributed public ledger called blockchain, which is a record of all transactions updated and held by currency holders.
  3. Google has unveiled its own cryptocurrency named “Libra”

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3


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