UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (25-07-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 25-07-2019

Current Affairs and News (25-07-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Reservation in Private Jobs
  • Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana (PMLVMDY)
  • Concerns associated with Sugarcane Industry
  • India rises in global innovation ranking
  • Milkyway’s violent birth decoded
  • The limits of anti-defection
  • Healthcare system needs more healing hands

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 25-07-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (25-07-2019)

Reservation in Private Jobs

Part of: Mains GS-II – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors

In News:

  • Andhra Pradesh turns out to be the First State to Reserve 75% Private Jobs for Local Youths
  • As indicated by the new law, on the off chance that an organization doesn’t locate the important aptitudes in local people, at that point it should prepare them in relationship with the state government,
  • The law is relevant to every single mechanical unit, manufacturing plants, joint endeavors, and PPP ventures.
  • The progression is certain in that it advances neighborhood enlisting
  • These aides intending to the discontent among local youth about loss of occupations to vagrant work from different states (like UP, Bihar)

Issues

  • It is against the soul of free-advertise economy
  • Whenever required abilities are not found in neighborhood youth, at that point businesses need to aptitude them expanding their expense of activities
  • This will demoralize significant enterprises from outside the state to set up its unit in the territory of AP
  • Comparative laws are proposed in different states like Madhya Pradesh, which aggregately impacts the solidarity of India and opportunity of its residents (Article 19(1)(d), 19(1)(e),19(1)(g))

Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana (PMLVMDY)

Part of: Mains GS-II – Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes.

In News:

  • The inside’s annuity plot for little brokers (PMLVMDY) has been advised and being presented on preliminary premise from this week.
  • The plan guarantees a base month to month benefits of Rs. 3,000/ – month in the wake of achieving the age of 60 years
  • Who can select for this plan?
  • Every single little businessperson and independently employed people just as the retail brokers with GST turnover beneath Rs. 1.5 crore and age between 18-40 years
  • Capability of the Scheme?
  • The plan would profit in excess of 5 crore little businesspeople and merchants.
  • Disentangled procedure of enrolment–dependent on self-affirmation as no archives are required with the exception of Aadhaar and ledger. Intrigued people can select themselves through more than 3.25 lakh Common Service Centers spread the nation over.
  • Administration of India will make coordinating commitment in the supporters’ record
  • LIC has been picked as annuity support for this plan

Do you know?

  • Just 7.4% of the working-age populace in India is secured under an annuity program( 65% for Germany and 31% for Brazil) as indicated by the 2017 WEF’s report on Global Human Capital.
  • Demographically, India will progress gradually from a ‘youthful’ to a ‘turning gray’ nation, where people over the age of 60 would increment from 8.9% of the populace now to 19.4% by 2050
  • Ramadorai Committee on Household funds – India is perched on a ticking annuity time bomb, whereby statistic profit can become statistic concern

Concerns associated with Sugarcane Industry

Part of: Mains GS-III – Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and MSP

In News

  • Focus has chosen to stop the pattern of rising MSP for Sugarcane
  • Focus additionally to extend the support load of sugar

Why such decisions?

  • To address the interest supply awkward nature – assessed creation of sugar this year is 32.95 million, though household request is only 26 million tons.
  • To Stabilize retail costs – guard gather joined with high paces of recuperation of sugar from sugarcane prompting excess in supply prompting crash in costs
  • To Reduce installment back payments from plants to ranchers – Center declares the base value that factories must compensation to sugar stick cultivators (huge vote bank-consequently subject to populism prompting misfortune for plant proprietors)

India rises in global innovation ranking

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-III – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development.

In news:

  • India has improved from its earlier year rank of 57 to 52 in the Global Innovation Index 2019
  • There has been a steady improvement in recent years – 81 of every 2015, which rose to 66 of every 2016, 60 of every 2017 and 57 out of 2018.
  • Significant development drivers are ICT administrations trades, graduates in science and building, the nature of colleges, net capital arrangement and imaginative merchandise sends out
  • The report is brought out by the UN World Intellectual Property Organization, INSEAD, and CII

Miscellaneous News

Milkyway’s violent birth decoded

  • Our universe Milkyway converged with another little system almost 10 billion years prior, as indicated by contemplates dependent on information from Gaia space observatory
  • This crash expanded our universe’s mass by about a quarter and set off a time of quickened star arrangement enduring around 2 to 4 billion years,
  • Cosmic systems of various kinds started to shape not long after Big Bang blast (denoted the start of Universe some 13.8 billion years back)
  • Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency, propelled in 2013

Pic: https://th.thgim.com/sci-tech/science/55thu1/article28701512.ece/alternates/FREE_660/THJC-SPACE-MILKYWAY


(MAINS FOCUS)


POLITY

TOPIC: General studies 2 

  • Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

The limits of anti-defection

Concerns:

  • The drawn-out political emergency in Karnataka has exhibited the manners by which the almost 35-year-old enemy of absconding law can be utilized and mishandled.

Context

  • The political emergency that started in Karnataka with the renunciation of 15 MLAs that took five days and different missed cutoff times to be put to cast a ballot
  • This underscored the convoluted working of India’s enemy of surrender law and hurled a scope of related lawful and protected inquiries.
  • The episode requires an understanding of the three arrangements of the Constitution: Article 190 (excursion of seats), Article 164 (1B), and the Xth timetable of the Constitution.

Anti-defection law:

  • The seeds of the counter abandonment law were planted after the general races in 1967.
  • Hostile to surrender arrangements in India were first presented in 1985 through the 52nd amendment to the Constitution.
  • It sets out the procedure by which lawmakers might be precluded on grounds of absconding by the Presiding Officer of a governing body dependent on a request by some other individual from the House.
  • The training so far is that courts don’t meddle until a choice with respect to preclusion is taken
  • The counter abandonment law doesn’t indicate a time period for Speakers to choose deserting procedures.
  • At the point when the governmental issues requested, Speakers rushed to condemn deserting procedures or postponed following upon them for a considerable length of time.

Grounds of disqualification under Anti-Defection law:

  • An administrator is esteemed to have absconded in the event that he either willfully surrenders the participation of his gathering or resists the orders of the gathering authority on a vote. This suggests a lawmaker challenging (declining or casting a ballot against) the gathering whip on any issue can lose his enrollment of the House. The law applies to both Parliament and state congregations.

Exceptions under the law:

  • Lawmakers may change their gathering without the danger of exclusion in specific conditions.
  • The law enables a gathering to converge with or into another gathering gave that at any rate 66% of its administrators are agreeable to the merger

The alteration, by which the Tenth Schedule was embedded in the Constitution, did three-wide things.

  • Right off the bat, it made officials obligated to be punished for their direct both inside (casting a ballot against the whip of the gathering) and outside (making talks, and so on.) the council — the punishment being the loss of their seats in Parliament or the state governing bodies.
  • Furthermore, it shielded officials from preclusion in situations where there was a part (with 1/third of individuals parting) or merger (with 2/3rds of individuals converging) of a council party with another ideological group.
  • Thirdly, it made the Presiding Officer of the concerned council the sole mediator of abandonment procedures

Early endeavors at law to discover the answer for the surrenders:

  • The first was made by Indira’s Home Minister Uma Shankar Dikshit in 1973;
  • The second, in 1978, by Shanti Bhushan, Minister for Law and Justice in the Janata Party legislature of Morarji Desai.
  • The third endeavor which was effective — was made in 1985, after the Congress won in excess of 400 seats in Lok Sabha in the consequence of Indira’s death.

The 2003 Amendment

  • The last advance in the administrative adventure of the counter abandonment law came in 2003.
  • A Constitution Amendment Bill was presented in Parliament by the administration of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee to address a portion of the issues with the law.
  • An advisory group headed by Pranab Mukherjee analyzed the Bill.

Pranab Mukherjee Committee observations:

  • It is seen that the bait of office of benefit has predominant influence in the political steed exchanging bringing about spate of abandonments and counter rebellions.
  • The 33% split arrangement which offered security to turncoats was erased from the law on the board of trustees’ suggestion.
  • The 2003 Amendment likewise fused the 1967 exhortation of the Y B Chavan board of trustees in restricting the size of the Council of Ministers and counteracting surrendering officials from joining the Council of Ministers until their re-appointment.

Way Forward:

  • Government officials discovered provisos in this law and utilized it for their very own advantage. The opportunity has already come and gone that a guard dog ought to be given to our Parliament and there is a requirement for our established savants to return to the issue to battle the hazard of debasement and surrender which has disintegrated the estimations of vote based system.
  • There is have to assemble a political agreement with the goal that the space for political and arrangement articulation in parliament for an individual part is extended.

Conclusion

  • The counter surrender law tries to give a steady government by guaranteeing the administrators don’t switch sides.
  • Be that as it may, this law likewise confines a lawmaker from casting a ballot in accordance with his heart, judgment, and interests of his electorate. The counter surrender law tries to give a steady government by guaranteeing the administrators don’t switch sides.
  • Such a circumstance hinders the oversight capacity of the council over the administration, by guaranteeing that individuals vote dependent on the choices taken by the gathering authority, and not what their constituents might want them to decide in favor of.
  • The arduous occasions in the Karnataka Vidhan Sabha have demonstrated that significantly following three decades, the counter deserting law has not had the option to stop political abandonments.

Connecting the dots:

  • Examine the worries against hostile to abandonment laws propose the potential changes that can be made to hostile to absconding law?
  • Considerably following three decades, the counter deserting law has not had the option to stop political abandonments. Basically examine the given explanation? Examine the worries against hostile to abandonment laws propose the potential changes that can be made to hostile to absconding law?

HEALTH

TOPIC: General studies 2 

  • Issues relating to the development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources
  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Healthcare system needs more healing hands

Context:

  • The fault lines of the Indian healthcare system, especially those of our understaffed and under-skilled health workforce, are in urgent need of repair

Concerns:

  • The separation points of the Indian medicinal services framework, particularly those of our understaffed and under-gifted wellbeing workforce, are in dire need of a fix
  • The Supreme Court has asserted that wellbeing is a human right while communicating its anguish at the spate of kid passings in Muzaffarpur.
  • The disaster in Bihar comes when specialists and patients have secured a forcefully ill-disposed relationship the nation over.
  • These are exacting updates that we have to critically fix the separation points in our wellbeing framework.
  • One of the significant disadvantages is as far as the absence of a medicinal services workforce.

How many health workers do we need?

As per the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs ):

  • The base number of prosperity workers required per 1,000 peoples is 22 as per the world prosperity affiliation.
  • The organizations fuse maternal and youth prosperity similarly as major overwhelming infections.
  • India’s National Health Mission too looked for after the limited MDG inspiration, in which practically 80% of masses’ prosperity needs were unaddressed.

As per Sustainable development Goals(SDG):

  • The base number of prosperity workers required per 1,000 peoples is 22 as per the world prosperity affiliation.
  • The organizations fuse maternal and youth prosperity similarly as major overwhelming infections.
  • The administrations incorporate non-transferable illnesses, psychological wellness, and different conditions.

About WHO:

  • World Health Organization is a specific office of UN
  • Built-up in 1948
  • HQ: Geneva, Switzerland
  • It is worried about universal general wellbeing
  • It goes about as organizing expert on universal general wellbeing
  • India is an organizer individual from WHO.
  • It is an individual from the UN Development Group (UNDP).

Ongoing insights from the National Sample Survey of 2016:

  • Qualified allopathic specialists are by and large 4.5 per 10, 000 Population, however just 1 for every 11,000 in the open segment.
  • The proportion of attendants and birthing specialists to specialists is 1.7, while it ought to be at any rate 3:1
  • India needs 2.5 million maternity specialists, there are an aggregate of just 1.3 million medical attendants generally speaking, with a significant number of them lacking satisfactory birthing assistance abilities.
  • Birthing assistance has been subsumed under general nursing, after autonomy.

How do we overcome these challenges? 

  • The reconstituted Medical Council of India, with a designated Board of Governors, is making an honorable showing in transforming an incurable administrative arrangement of therapeutic training.
  • It proposes now to allow consortia of huge private establishments of notoriety to begin restorative universities or even join forces with existing therapeutic schools to prepare more college understudies.
  • It is important to redesign locale emergency clinics in these states and make them strong preparing offices for undergrad and postgraduate therapeutic and nursing instruction just as partnered wellbeing proficient preparing
  • The National Health Mission ought to consider enlisting crisp restorative alumni into a 3-year short assistance commission to accommodate adaptability in presenting on underserved states and regions.
  • There is a need to restore birthing assistance preparing projects to maximum capacity by upgrading scale, aptitudes, scope, societal position and compensations.
  • Advanced innovation, with choice emotionally supportive networks, the board calculations, and tele-counseling, can significantly intensify their adequacy.
  • Progressed clinical nursing, required for numerous specialties, can be created by beginning certificates and partnerships associated with the NBE.

Conclusion:

  • There are far less medicinal services suppliers than required and those accessible are seriously maldistributed crosswise over states, and among provincial and urban regions.
  • As the quantity of wellbeing laborers raises and the nation’s wellbeing framework needs are immersed, the surplus may likewise animate the worldwide wellbeing workforce as nations with maturing populaces and contracting workforce stretch their hands to look for help from India’s statistic abundance. Be that as it may, till at that point, India and Bihar first.

Connecting the dots:

  • Examine the difficulties looked by the human services framework in India. Recommend the measures to address the difficulties
  • While the private division commands social insurance conveyance the nation over, a greater part of the populace living beneath the neediness line (BPL) keeps on depending on the under-financed and short-staffed open area for its human services needs, because of which these remain neglected. Remark. Likewise recommend thoughts to improve the status of open social insurance in India.
  • “Wellbeing is a Human Right”. Explain the announcement
  • Talk about the objectives and destinations of National wellbeing arrangement 2017

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-Dhan Yojana is being implemented by which ministry?

  1. Ministry of Labour and employment
  2. Finance Ministry
  3. Ministry of Human Resource development
  4. Ministry of Skill development and entrepreneurship

Q.2) Global Innovation Index is brought out by

  1. IMF
  2. World Bank
  3. World Economic Forum
  4. UN World Intellectual Property Organisation

Q.3) Fair and remunerative Prices for sugarcane is approved by

  1. Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs
  2. Commission for agricultural costs and committee
  3. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare
  4. Prime Minister’s Office

Q.4) Tarun Ramadorai Committee constituted by RBI dealt with which of the following issue?

  1. Household Finance
  2. Financial inclusion
  3. Cryptocurrency
  4. Impact of Demonetisation

Q.5) Gaia space observatory belongs to which space agency?

  1. china national Space Administration
  2. Indian Space Research Organisation
  3. NASA
  4. European Space Agency

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