UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-10-2019)

upsc exam current affairs 09-10-2019

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 09-10-2019

Current Affairs and News (09-10-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • India formally received the first Rafale fighter jet 
  • INFORMAL SUMMITS
  • HINDU-KUSH-HIMALAYAN (HKH) REGION
  • 2019 NOBEL PRIZE FOR PHYSICS
  • 2019 NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE
  • China’s role in Bangladesh while shaping its ties with Dhaka

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-10-2019)

India formally received the first Rafale fighter jet 

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Security

In News

  • The DassaultRafale is a French twin-motor, canard delta wing, multirole contender airship structured and worked by Dassault Aviation of France
  • Furnished with a wide scope of weapons, the Rafale is expected to act inside and outstrike, against delivering strike and atomic discouragement missions
  • In September 2016, India and France marked a €7.87 billion Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) for 36 Rafale multi-job contender flies in fly-away condition following the unexpected declaration by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in April 2015.
  • The main bunch of planes will land in India just in May 2020. By February 2021, India will get 18 Rafale planes and by April 2022, India will get all the 36 Rafale.

Do You Know?

  • Rafale has been chosen for buy by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, and the Qatar Air Force.
  • The Rafale has been utilized in the battle over Afghanistan, Libya, Mali, Iraq, and Syria.

INFORMAL SUMMITS

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II – International Relations

In News

  • Second Informal India-China Summit booked to occur in Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu on October 11-12.
  • The two nations gathered their first Informal Summit in focal China’s Wuhan in April 2018.
  • By definition, casual summits do not have the pageantry, convention, and function of formal ones, including designation level talks and a pre-set motivation for dialogs.
  • No understandings are marked, and there is no joint articulation or question and answer session. The two heads included hold coordinated talks, now and again with just interpreters present.
  • It takes into account unobtrusively examining combative issues from media glare and attention.

About Mamallapuram

  • Mamallapuram is otherwise called Seven Pagodas of Mahabalipuram.
  • It was one of two significant port urban communities by the seventh century inside the Pallava realm.
  • It has been pronounced as a UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Some significant structures include Thirukadalmallai, Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance, Varaha Cave Temple, Krishna’s Butterball, Shore sanctuary and Pancha Rathas (Five Chariots).

HINDU-KUSH-HIMALAYAN (HKH) REGION

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Environmental Conservation

In News

  • The India Meteorological Department (IMD) will team up with meteorological offices in China and Pakistan to give atmosphere figure administrations to nations in the HKH area
  • HKH locale traverses Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.
  • The HKH area is viewed as the Third Pole [after the North and South Poles] and has huge ramifications for the atmosphere.
  • It contains immense cryospheric zones, is likewise the world’s biggest store of day office outside the polar area, and the wellspring of 10 significant waterways.
  • There are proposition to set up a local atmosphere focus that will give gauging administrations and atmosphere investigations, which will be under the World Meteorological Organization

2019 NOBEL PRIZE FOR PHYSICS

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Science & Technology

In News

  • Three researchers, James Peebles, Michel Mayor, and Didier Queloz have won the Nobel Prize 2019 for Physics for their commitment to the comprehension of the development of the universe and earth’s place in the universe.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): 

  • Canadian-American cosmologist James Peebles, 84, won one-portion of the Prize for his hypothetical work helping us see how the universe developed after the Big Bang.
  • His work is central to a great extent around Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, which is electromagnetic radiation left over from the early universe once it had cooled adequately following the Big Bang.

Exoplanet:

  • The other half went to Swiss space experts Michel Mayor, 77, and Didier Queloz, 53, for their disclosure of an exoplanet that tested assumptions about planets.
  • Utilizing a spectrograph, ELODIE, they anticipated the planet by watching the “Doppler impact” — when the star wobbles as an impact of a planet’s gravity on its watched light.
  • Today, exoplanets are being found much of the time — more than 4,000 are known — which is momentous advancement from three decades prior, when not by any means one exoplanet was known.
https://d39gegkjaqduz9.cloudfront.net/TH/2019/10/09/DEL/Delhi/TH/5_01/8f579252_3250123_101_mr.jpg

2019 NOBEL PRIZE IN MEDICINE

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III- Science & Technology

In News

  • The 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been granted to researchers William G Kaelin, Jr, Peter J Ratcliffe, and Gregg L Semenza.
  • They got the honor mutually for their revelations of “how cells detect and adjust to oxygen accessibility”. They set up the reason for our comprehension of how oxygen levels influence cell digestion and physiological capacity.
  • Their examination has made ready for promising new methodologies to battle iron deficiency, malignancy, and numerous different illnesses.
  • It is the 110th prize in the classification that has been granted since 1901.

(MAINS FOCUS)


AGRICULTURE

TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Significant harvests editing designs in different pieces of the nation, various sorts of water system and water system frameworks stockpiling, transport and advertising of agrarian produce and issues and related imperatives

The truth about ZBNF (zero budget natural farming)

Context:

  • National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in view of a meeting to generate new ideas that included industry agents, sent a letter to Prime Minister Narendra Modi contradicting Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) as of late

History:

  • It was after the spearheading work of Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler in natural science in the nineteenth century that compound composts started to be utilized in agribusiness.
  •  In the twentieth century, the reactions leveled against Green Revolution advancements were reactions to the expanding “criminalization” of agribusiness.
  • Cases were made that other option, non-synthetic agribusinesses were conceivable. Ex: Organic cultivating, Rudolf Steiner’s biodynamics, Masanobu Fukuoka’s one-straw upheaval and Madagascar’s System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
  • In India, such other options and their variations notwithstanding, among others, homoeo-cultivating, Vedic cultivating, Natu-eco cultivating, Agnihotra cultivating and Amrutpani cultivating. Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF)

About ‘zero budget natural farming’ (ZBNF):

Spearheaded by Subhash Palekar, an inventive rancher from Maharashtra.

  • The strategy replaces composts and pesticides with inventions of dairy animals fertilizer, bovine pee, jaggery, and heartbeat flour, and guarantee flawless soil conditions for plant development.
  • It does as such by keeping the topsoil secured with crop deposits to build water maintenance, covering of seeds with bovine waste and pee, blend made of manure, pee, jaggery, and heartbeat flour to increase soil microorganisms, invention to shield plants from bugs and so on.

Logic behind this:

Soil has every one of the supplements plants need. To make these supplements accessible to plants, we need the intermediation of microorganisms. For this, he prescribes the “four wheels of ZBNF”: Bijamrit, Jivamrit, Mulching, and Waaphasa.

  • Bijamrit is the microbial covering of seeds with definitions of dairy animals pee and cow compost.
  • Jivamrit is the upgrade of soil microorganisms utilizing an inoculum of bovine compost, dairy animals pee, and jaggery.
  • Mulching is the covering of soil with yields or harvest buildups.
  • Waaphasa is the structure up of soil humus to expand soil air circulation.
  • Incorporates three techniques for creepy crawly and bug the executives: Agniastra, Brahmastra, and Neemastra (every single distinctive arrangement utilizing bovine pee, dairy animals manure, tobacco, natural products, green stew, garlic, and neem).
  • 98.5% of the supplements that plants need are acquired from air, water, and daylight; just 1.5% is from the dirt.
  • All supplements are available in satisfactory amounts in a wide range of soils. In any case, they are not in a usable structure.
  • Jivamrit, Mr. Palekar’s supernatural creation, makes these supplements accessible to the plants by expanding the number of inhabitants in soil microorganisms.
  • As a result of ZBNF’s profound closeness to nature, its experts will quit drinking, betting, lying, eating non-veggie lover nourishment and squandering assets.

Image: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/img/70463084/Master.jpg

Mr. Palekar’ arguments:

  • All information made by rural colleges is bogus. He calls Liebig as “Mr. Falsehood Big”.
  •  He marks compound composts and pesticides as “devilish substances”, cross-reproduced cows as “evil species” and biotechnology and tractors as “wicked advances”,  
  • He is incredulous of natural cultivating,” is “more perilous than synthetic cultivating”, and “more terrible than [an] nuclear bomb”.
  • He calls vermicomposting an “outrage” and Eiseniafoetida, the red worm used to make vermicompost, as the “destructor mammoth”.
  • He likewise calls Steiner’s biodynamic cultivating “bio-explosive cultivating”.

Research argues:

  • Indian soils are poor in natural issue content.
  • About 59% of soils are low in accessible nitrogen;
  • About 49% are low in accessible phosphorus;
  • About 48% are low or medium inaccessible potassium.
  • Indian soils are likewise varyingly insufficient in micronutrients, for example, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, molybdenum, and boron.

Solution:

  • Area explicit answers for support soil wellbeing and continue increments in soil ripeness.
  • Researchers propose soil test-based adjusted preparation and incorporated supplement the board strategies consolidating natural excrements (i.e., ranch yard excrement, fertilizer, crop buildups, biofertilizers, green compost) with concoction manures.

Criticisms of ZNBF:

  • ZBNF is not really zero spending plan. Numerous elements of Mr. Palekar’s definitions must be acquired.
  • There are no free investigations to approve the cases that ZBNF plots have a better return than non-ZBNF plots.
  • Field preliminaries have recorded a yield shortage of about 30% in ZBNF plots when contrasted and non-ZBNF plots.
  • The Jivamrit solution is basically the use of 10 kg of dairy animals manure and 10 liters of bovine pee per section of land every month. For a five-month season, this implies 50 kg of bovine manure and 50 liters of cow pee. Given nitrogen substance of 0.5% in bovine manure and 1% in dairy animals pee, this means pretty much 750 g of nitrogen for every section of land per season. This is absolutely insufficient considering the nitrogen prerequisites of Indian soils.

Way Forward:

  • We need steps to check wind and water disintegration of soils.
  • We need inventive innovations to limit the physical debasement of soils due to waterlogging, flooding and crusting.
  • We have to improve the fruitfulness of saline, acidic, antacid and dangerous soils by recovering them. We need area explicit mediations towards adjusted treatment and coordinated supplement the board.

Conclusion:

  • While we attempt to lessen the utilization of synthetic composts in certain areas, we ought to be available to expand their utilization in different areas. Yet, such a thorough methodology requires a solid grasp of logical temper and a firm dismissal of hostile to science stances.
  • In this sense, the incorporation of ZBNF into our horticultural approach by the administration seems impulsive and rash.

Connecting the dots:

  • Zero Budget Natural Farming has no logical approval and its incorporation into agrarian strategy seems impulsive. Investigate.

INDIA’S FOREIGN RELATIONS

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • India and its neighborhood-relations.
  • Reciprocal, territorial and worldwide groupings and understandings including India or potentially influencing India’s inclinations

China’s role in Bangladesh while shaping its ties with Dhaka

Context:

  • Leader Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping to meet in two-day India-China casual summit
  • The second casual summit between pioneers of India and China is planned to happen in the seaside town of Mamallapuram, south of Chennai. (first was Wuhan)
  • The simply closed visit (October 6) to India by Bangladesh’s PM, Sheik Hasina.

Wuhan summit:

  • The primary casual summit between the two heads was held at Wuhan in April 2018, required by the prior military showdown between the Asian goliaths at Doklam.
  • Judiciousness at the most noteworthy political level empowered the two countries to land at a modus-vivendi in Wuhan, however, the long-putrefying regional question and an uncertain 4,000 km-in addition to Line of Actual Control are industriously alive.

History:

  • In the approach of the 1971 Bangladesh war, the US and China, which had started their very own rapprochement, bolstered Pakistan and were against Indian help toward the East Pakistan political initiative — symbolized by Sheik Mujibur Rahman.
  • However, with help from Russia, India accomplished what might be depicted as an astounding military triumph — it freed Dhaka and gave overcapacity to Mujibur Rahman.

India – China – Bangladesh-Pakistan :

  • Indian military triumph of 1971 prompted a key reappraisal in Beijing about its just neighbor, whom it had militarily mortified in October 1962.
  • The seeds of the key security nervousness in China about India were planted around then.
  • Beijing’s reaction was to put resources into Pakistan and, in the interceding decades, a profound and dark Sino-Pak key and security relationship was sustained
  • This thusly encouraged Pakistan, to set out upon an intermediary war against India (with psychological warfare as an apparatus) that started in 1990 and has kept on dating.
  • Bangladesh is a functioning accomplice of the Xi Jinping-drove BRI (Belt and Road Initiative).
  • In the security division, Bangladesh is likewise a significant beneficiary of Chinese military stock, including submarines.

Recent visit of Bangladesh PM takeaways:

  • It gives an enlightening signal concerning how the key ties among India and China have advanced and future exercises to be drawn from this respective relationship.
  • Regardless of certain slips up and faltering, the two-sided is as of now depicted as the “best ever” and a format for India’s ties with its different neighbors

Way forward:

  • India’s withstanding territorial vital target should be one which guarantees that Bangladesh doesn’t transform into a Pakistan, either by method for being constrained into picking Beijing over Delhi; or supporting radical Islamic philosophies locally.
  • The oceanic area, and the Bay of Bengal specifically, with Dhaka as the coxswain, should be imagined at Mamallapuram.

Connecting the dots:

  • The Bangladesh-India-China triangle is regularly clouded by the high permeability concurred to Pakistan in the uneasy connection between the two Asian monsters. Break down.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements 

  1. The dark matter is the force which holds together galaxies which otherwise may get torn apart
  2. The dark energy helps the universe’s increasing-rapid and constant expansion

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Which of the following countries are part of the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan mountain system

  1. India
  2. China
  3. Myanmar
  4. Uzbekistan
  5. Kyrgyzstan

Select the correct answer from codes given below

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 1,2,3 and 4 only
  4. All of them

Q.3) Consider the following statements about Mamallapuram

  1. The UNESCO World Heritage site Mamallapuram is also known as Seven Pagodas
  2. It was one of two major port cities by the 7th century within the Pallava kingdom
  3. Some important structures include Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance, Krishna’s Butterball, Shore temple, and Pancha Rathas

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3


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