UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (21-08-2019)

Current Affairs 21-08-2019

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 21-08-2019

UPSC exam current affairs 21-08-2019- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Aadhaar-social media profile linking
  • Electric Vehicles
  • Lake Conservation
  • Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) & Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)
  • URBANISATION 
  • AADHAAR

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (21-08-2019)

Aadhaar-social media profile linking

Part of: GS Mains II – Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability

In News

  • There is a developing interest to interface internet based life profiles of clients with their Aadhaar numbers to check the flow of phoney, slanderous and explicit substance, just as material that is hostile to national or identified with fear exercises.
  • Subsequently, petitions – to interface aadhar and client profile – have been recorded against Social media stages (like Facebook) in various High Courts of India.
  • Facebook has thusly documented a supplication in Supreme Court, to move every single such request pending under the steady gaze of various high courts to Supreme Court for arbitration.
  • Facebook fought that there were four petitions – two in the Madras High Court and one each in the Bombay and the Madhya Pradesh High Courts – on the issue.
  • There was a hazard that the diverse High Courts may land at clashing choices on the issue of Aadhaar linkage. It is smarter to have the SC accept the last call.
  • The Supreme Court focused on the need to discover a harmony between the privilege of online security and the privilege of the State to distinguish individuals who utilize the web to spread frenzy and perpetrate violations.
  • Governments reaction on the issue is significant given that SC has maintained the privilege of protection as a major right in 2017

Electric Vehicles

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Economy

In News

  • Low-quality Chinese batteries could hinder India’s EV drive.
  • The Chinese government has prodded its battery creators to climb the worth chain by recalibrating its appropriation system.
  • China used to furnish endowments to e-bikes with little batteries of short-range and with 25kmph speed.
  • Presently they have halted the endowments on those low-innovation EVs and are giving sponsorships just to high-go, high-thickness batteries and to EVs with a more drawn out range.
  • Accordingly, makers of more seasoned models unfit to sell their items in their local market (China) are sending out their low-quality batteries to India.
  • As batteries rule expenses of electric vehicles, some Indian engineers will in general purchase low-quality Chinese modules to meet cost weights and courses of events.
  • This comes against the setting of India’s FAME 2 plan—to extend business vehicle armada—reported with an expense of ₹10,000 crores in March.
  • It is basic to get cell cost and parameters like vitality thickness (size and weight), lifecycles, wellbeing, temperature resistance right, with the goal that its batteries are made in India and fit to Indian conditions.

Do You know?

  • India is at present giving last contacts to an arrangement to fabricate Tesla-style Giga industrial facilities to build up its very own residential battery producing the biological system.
  • This includes a pile of impetuses, for example, concessional financing choices, benevolent assessment systems and reasonable fundamental traditions obligation protect.
  • As indicated by NITI Aayog, India will require six such gigawatt-scale offices (of 10GWh each) by 2025 and 12 by 2030.
  • Other than electric vehicles, such battery stockpiles will take into account power networks, given the irregular idea of the power from clean vitality sources, for example, sun oriented and wind.

Lake Conservation

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Environmental Conservation

In News

  • Chilika, the nation’s biggest bitter water tidal pond, is spread more than 1,100 sq km. Lakhs of visitors visit the lake to watch imperilled Irrawaddy dolphins and transient winged animals during winter.
  • The Odisha Wetland Authority has endorsed the usage of an incorporated administration plan for Chilika and Ansupa lakes at an expected expense of Rs 180 Crore.
  • Ansupa, Odisha’s biggest freshwater lake, is spread over just about 2 sq km. Ansupa is renowned for its sweet water fish and is likewise the wintering ground for 32 types of transitory winged creatures.
  • The five-year the board of lakes is planned at fortifying work of thousands of anglers depending on the two water-bodies. Plus, the travel industry advancement and protection of the environment will be taken up.

Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) & Extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB)

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III – Science and Technology

In News

  • Treating drug-safe tuberculosis – like MDR-TB and XDR-TB – got a lift after U.S. Nourishment and Drug Administration (FDA) affirmed another medication Pretomanid.
  • Pretomanid is just the third new enemy of TB medicates endorsed for use by the FDA in over 40 years.
  • The medication was created and tried in clinical preliminaries by New York-based non-benefit association TB Alliance.
  • The term of treatment for medicating safe TB can be radically sliced from 18 two years to only six-nine months when pretomanid sedate is utilized alongside two previously endorsed medications — bedaquiline and linezolid.
  • The all-oral, three-tranquillize routine can likewise incomprehensibly improve the treatment achievement rate (by and by it is 30% – half) and possibly decline the number of passings because of better adherence to treatment.

Do You know?

  • Around the world, TB has outperformed HIV-AIDS as the main source of death because of irresistible infections. In 2017, more than 13 lakh individuals passed on of the illness.
  • Individuals with TB who don’t react to in any event isoniazid and rifampicin, which are first-line TB drugs are said to have MDR-TB.
  • Individuals who are impervious to isoniazid and rifampin, in addition to any fluoroquinolone and at any rate one of three injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin) are said to have XDR-TB.
  • As indicated by WHO reports an expected 4.5 lakh individuals over the world have MDR-TB and almost 37,500 individuals have XDR-TB.
  • India has 24% of MDR-TB cases on the planet.

(MAINS FOCUS)


URBANISATION 

Topic: General studies 2

  • Welfare plans for helpless segments of the populace by the Center and States and the exhibition of these plans; instruments, laws, foundations and bodies comprised for the security and improvement of these defenceless areas

Urbanise India to eliminate poverty

CONTEXT:

  • Reasonable urbanization can activate India’s latent capacity. The world is at 55.3% urbanization by and large, though India slacks at 34%.
  • India should efficiently urbanize and give mass-work to its enormous populace in high-development areas like industry and administrations.

 Can we grow enough food with a reduced agriculture workforce?

  • World Bank information shows that with just 1.3% of its workforce in ranches, the US creates enough nourishment to sustain twofold its populace.
  • In 2017, middle cultivating family salary was $75,994, which surpassed the $61,372 US family unit middle.
  • China, with 27% of its workforce engaged with cultivating, produces 500 million tons of nourishment consistently with less arable land than India.
  • India, in the examination, produces 290 million tons of nourishment with a 43% agribusiness workforce when 20% would do the trick.
  • With better return and efficiency, a littler agribusiness workforce will acquire similarly with industry and administrations.

The case for urbanisation is evident when we examine state-wise data. 

  • The going with realistic shows the urban rate, per-capita GSDP, advanced education Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) for delegate states.
  • GER is a marker of human capital improvement; vital for high-development parts like administrations.
  • TFR demonstrates whether a populace is contracting or growing and is crucial to arrangement arranging,

States in the South-West zones:

  • These states are progressively urbanized.
  • All over the 31% all-India normal. These states additionally have low TFR, extensively underneath the national normal of 2.18.
  • Low ripeness and high GER has brought about better instructed, littler populaces that are acquiring more than their northern partners.

Tamil Nadu (TN):

  • It has India’s most elevated GER, at 48.6, and one of the least TFRs, at 1.7. In 2011 itself, we can see TN is generally urbanized at 48.4%, with an effective high GER of 40. No other large Indian state accomplished a GER of 40 even in 2017-18.
  • Quick urbanization has helped TN’s enrolment in advanced education. In any case, backward spotlight on rank legislative issues has detracted from development.
  • In spite of the fact that TN had the second-most noteworthy per-capita GSDP in 2011-12, development is lower contrasted with states like Karnataka and Telangana, which are driven by administrations.
  • The TN government must combine on utilizing high GER and urbanization to drive its solid industry heritage and fabricate an enormous administrations part.

Karnataka:

  • Karnataka is an intriguing case. With one of the highest per-capita GDPs at Rs 2 lakh in 2017-18 and a reasonably high urban percentage at 38%, a reality check indicator is its lower GER of 27.8. 
  • Information from RBI and the Economic Survey show 60% of Karnataka’s GDP originates from Bengaluru and the administration’s division—driven by IT and other innovative drivers.
  • Karnataka’s administration is putting locals in a heartbreaking circumstance of being not able go after the best occupations in their state. Karnataka is an intriguing case. With one of the highest per-capita GDPs at Rs 2 lakh in 2017-18 and a reasonably high urban percentage at 38%, a reality check indicator is its lower GER of 27.8. 
  • Information from RBI and the Economic Survey show 60% of Karnataka’s GDP originates from Bengaluru and the administration’s division—driven by IT and other innovative drivers.
  • Like most southern states, TFR is low; in any case, the state sees huge movement. Regardless of its enormous administration’s area, by defocusing on human capital
  • Karnataka must concentrate on urbanization and improvement of human funding to cure this, which will additionally help the state’s amazing development direction.

Gujarat:

  • Gujarat is another irregular case—high urbanization at 43% however lower-than-normal GER of 20.1. Gujarat’s unfaltering development and high per-capita GSDP of Rs 2 lakh are driven by its marvellous industry segment, which represents the greater part of GVA.
  • High reliance on industry, and not administrations, which contribute just 35% of GVA, implies Gujarat’s development will begin backing off when computerization and different variables kick in.
  • With a TFR of 2.03, Gujarat’s populace downturn isn’t as steep as southern states. Without the improvement of human capital, Gujarat is in peril of slacking in the future.
  • The response to this is putting resources into advanced education and building a solid administrations segment to supplement its industry.

Northern states 

Punjab:

  • Punjab stands apart among northern states. It flaunts a high urban rate (37.5%), high GER (30.3) in 2017-18, and one of the most reduced TFRs (1.62).
  • Notwithstanding this, Punjab still depends vigorously on agribusiness; its administrations and modern yield is lower than that of southern states.
  • With pointers of high urbanization, high GER and low populace development, Punjab can without much of a stretch make the progress to a high-development economy concentrated on administrations, with the correct arrangements.

North-Central-East zones 

  • Different states in the North-Central-East zones, for the most part, have low urbanization and low GER. The absence of urbanization has brought about a deficiency of industry and administrations divisions and low per-capita GDP.
  • The populaces in these states will continue becoming within a reasonable time-frame, demonstrated by higher TFRs.
  • Without business choices in high-development segments, these enormous populaces can’t depend on agribusiness or industry alone for development. Administrations are an unquestionable requirement. Uttar Pradesh has endeavoured to create human capital—GER rose from 17.4 to 25.9 in six years.
  • Presently, approaches to support yield with work concentrated enterprises (LIIs) and administrations to give formal business can build development.

Bihar :

  • Bihar is an upsetting contextual analysis on the impacts of low urbanization and human capital. Just 11.3% of the populace is urban. GER is the most minimal in India and barely developing—from 12.5 to 13 of every six years.
  • Per-capita GSDP is least, at ‘42,000 out of 2017-18. In spite of having rich land, Bihar’s horticulture area can’t develop on the grounds that it is confused with countless wards.
  • With India’s most noteworthy TFR—3.41—Bihar’s extending populace is sentenced to a sub-optimistic presence because of the state’s dormant economy.
  • Bihar needs unique consideration from the Center, with centered plans to compose the agrarian business, urbanize and instruct the majority, and give mass work through LIIs.
  • Madhya Pradesh has set a genuine model here by organizing agrarian development just as founding LIIs to give mass business

Conclusion:

  • It is clear that every state—irrespective of prosperity or geographical location—is diverse. We are now in an era where the role of the Centre is increasingly limited, and state spending is growing. Each state must evaluate its economy—workforce distribution, sectoral contribution, demographics, formal employment, higher education and specialisation, unique growth drivers—and set a development plan.

Connecting the dots:

  1. For India to make urbanization supportable, it should initially handle the issues of assortment of wards, powerless income base and human asset limit shortage that effect a large portion of its urban communities. Examine.
  2. Step by step instructions to bridle the advantages of Urbanization for increasingly monetary improvement. Examine

AADHAAR

TOPIC: General Studies 2

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

Aadhaar –social media link

Context:

  • The Supreme Court on Tuesday focused on the need to discover a harmony between the privilege to online security and the privilege of the State to identify individuals who utilize the web to spread frenzy and perpetrate wrongdoings.
  • A Bench of Justices Deepak Gupta and Aniruddha Ghose communicated worry over the threats of the dim web.
  • The Bench’s remarks were because of entries by Attorney General K.K. Venugopal, showing up for the Tamil Nadu government alongside advocate Balaji Srinivasan, about the need to interface online life profiles of enlisted clients with their Aadhaar numbers, and whenever required, have stages, for example, Facebook and WhatsApp share the 12-digit remarkable character with law authorization organizations to help recognize violations.

Arguments of Mr.venugopal in favour of linking Aadhaar with social media profiles:

  • The connecting of web-based life profiles with Aadhaar is expected to check counterfeit news, disparaging articles, obscene materials and hostile to the national and dread substance in the online media.
  • He said the administration thought that it was a test to follow the ‘originator’ of such online substance. The administrations of internet-based life stages, which were utilized to circle such substance, was the need of great importance.
  • Senior supporters Mukul Rohatgi and Kapil Sibal, speaking to online life stages, said they had moved the Supreme Court for the sole motivation behind moving the procedures pending in High Courts to the zenith court for settling.

Multiple cases:

  • Facebook fought that there were four petitions — two in the Madras High Court and one each in the Bombay and the Madhya Pradesh High Courts — on the issue.
  • The court, as the most noteworthy court in the nation, and not the High Courts, ought to choose the issue that influenced the protection of an online client.
  • A choice of the top court would cover the whole range of the nation and would consistently apply to every one of the States.
  • Mr Sibal said a choice of the Indian courts would have worldwide implications.
  • The two legal counsellors brought up that a nine-judge Constitution Bench had pronounced protection as a major right connected with life and nobility under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Mr Venugopal inquired as to why web-based life stages have chosen to move toward the Supreme Court now of time.

 Aadhaar :

  • It is a 12 digit singular ID number gave by UIDAI (Unique recognizable proof authority of India) for the benefit of Government of India.
  • It will fill in as a character and address evidence anyplace in India.
  • It is accessible in 2 structures, physical and electronic structure for example (e-Aadhaar).
  • Any occupant (an individual who has dwelled in India for 182 days, in the one year going before the date of use for enlistment for Aadhaar) of India regardless of age, sex, the class can benefit it.
  • The UID authority will confirm the Aadhaar number of an individual if an element makes such a solicitation. A mentioning element (an organization or individual that needs to verify data of an individual) needs to get the assent of a person before gathering his data.

Benefits of Aadhaar 

  • JAM trinity – Jan DhanYojana, Aadhaar and Mobile numbers – This will make the administration backing to poor more focused on and less distortive.
  • The ID of the recipients of the administration’s welfare plans – Aadhar will evacuate phoney and copies characters. It very well may be utilized to channel the rundown of recipients and stop the spillage of open cash.
  • To handle the dark cash issue – Use of Aadhar in monetary exchanges can lessen the danger of dark cash in the nation.
  • Income assessment form – Use of Aadhar in annual duty recording will lessen the number of reports required. It can make the procedure an increasingly productive and financially savvy way.
  • In Opening a ledger – There is no compelling reason to gather various personality verifications or go around for documentation. Your humble Aadhaar Card is adequate verification of your character and address.
  • In getting endowments legitimately to the ledger – By connecting Aadhar with financial balances, sponsorships like LPG will get credited to financial balance straightforwardly.
  • To get annuity cash on schedule – By simply enrolling with the Aadhaar number, benefits related documentation procedure will be facilitated and an auspicious payout of annuity cash can be guaranteed.
  • The issue of computerized Life testament – Aadhar number can be utilized to get an advanced life endorsement. It will help beneficiaries without the issue of physically heading off to the bank and presenting the existence authentication.
  • Simple Provident Fund payment – The Aadhaar will guarantee that the Provident Fund cash isn’t occupied and is dispensed straightforwardly to the beneficiary’s record.
  • Acknowledged as a proof of address by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) for putting resources into the financial exchange.
  • Mapping advancement parameters – In basic divisions of the nation like social insurance and training, Aadhar can be utilized to outline improvement process.
  • It can delineate labour, in view of the professional preparing obtained by the person, to reasonable occupation opening/aptitude prerequisites of the State.

 Legislative Backing for Aadhaar: How will it help?

  • The Narendra Modi government presented the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016 in the Lok Sabha on Thursday. The enactment looks to give statutory support to Aadhaar and empower focused on the conveyance of sponsorships and different advantages to the expected recipients.
  • The Bill was presented as a cash Bill in the Lower House as it tends to be postponed and passed distinctly in the Lok Sabha. Be that as it may, resistance groups have communicated worries about calling Aadhar as a Money Bill. The issue of protection has likewise been one of the clingy focuses in such a manner. The article quickly manages the issues in question.

What makes the Aadhaar platform suitable for direct benefit transfer?

  • It is straightforward and can possibly dispose of spillage. It does as such by allocating a remarkable personality number to every occupant.
  • The character stays one of a kind in light of the consideration of biometrics like fingerprints and iris.
  • The stage offers benefits like movability to the recipients.

There are three important issues that are debated around:

  • Postponing the Aadhaar as cash charge the administration is setting up a perilous point of reference. With this, the Rajya Sabha can’t make corrections to cash bill passed by the Lok Sabha and can just make proposals. It likewise needs to return cash bills to the Lok Sabha inside 14 days from the date of their receipt, along these lines guaranteeing a period bound procedure.
  • Security worries around the Aadhaar venture have been various, given that it requires the utilization of biometric data, for example, fingerprints and iris sweeps of residents. Pundits guarantee that without proper governing rules, this data isn’t verified and that it tends to be abused by the state itself—to profile individuals. There needs to have a viable hearty law to secure the protection of the residents.
  • The adequacy of a biometric unique mark is another issue that isn’t appropriately tended to. UIDAI in its different reports has thought of specific glitches that it looked during taking biometric subtleties of an individual. There are examples where individuals (particularly in Villages) come up short get legitimate thumb impression, obviously making them not qualified for endowments. The legislature should think of imaginative answers for address this issue

The Supreme Court maintained the legitimacy of India’s goal-oriented biometric personality venture, ‘Aadhaar’, saying it profited the minimized and poor, yet forcefully got control over an administration push to make it compulsory for different administrations.

  • Aadhaar is intended to assist benefits with arriving at the underestimated segments of the general public and considers the pride of individuals from the individual as well as from a network perspective.
  • The board administered the program had justified yet struck down arrangements in the demonstration that made its utilization required in applications for administrations running from financial balances to cell phone associations and school confirmations.
  • The court likewise governed illegal the utilization of Aadhaar by organizations to build up a person’s character.

Where is Aadhaar going to be required?

  • Area 7 which states Aadhar is required for any administration conspire that draws out of the united reserve of India. This implies in the event that you need to profit advantages, for example, proportion, LPG appropriation, MGNREGA, you need to outfit your Aadhaar number or your Aadhaar enlistment ID.
  • An individual needs to outfit their Aadhaar number or the enlistment ID while documenting Income Tax returns.
  • It has made Aadhaar-PAN card connecting obligatory just like the prerequisite of Aadhaar while applying for PAN card. This is a circuitous connect to banks, where the PAN card number is required. It is this part, as it were, makes it compulsory for you to acquire an Aadhaar number.

What of the Aadhaar Act has the court struck down?

  • Segment 33(1) which permits exposure of data, including character and validation records, whenever requested by a court not sub-par compared to that of a District Judge. People ought to be given the chance of a conference.
  • Segment 33(2) which enabled character and validation information to be revealed in light of a legitimate concern for national security on the heading of an official, not beneath the position of Joint Secretary to the Government of India. A Judicial Officer (ideally a sitting High Court Judge) ought to be related with it and that the administration ought to acquire enactment with this impact.
  • Segment 47 which alluded to the comprehension of offenses. Under this Section, no individual was permitted to record an objection in the event that he/she felt their information was spilled or abused. The law just enabled the court to take discernment of an objection recorded by UIDAI or anybody approved by it. Any individual will presently be permitted to record a protest in the event that he/she feels their information has been undermined.
  • Segment 57 alludes to the utilization of Aadhaar information by any “body corporate or individual” to build up the personality of a person. Equity Sikri, in his judgment, saw this area as unlawful. It was under this arrangement that privately owned businesses like Paytm and Airtel Payments Bank looked for Aadhaar subtleties from clients.
  • The court additionally decided that verification record ought not be kept past the time of a half year and the arrangement that permitted document records for a long time has been struck down. It has barred stockpiling of meta-information of exchanges by people. This forbidding method UIDAI can’t gather informational indexes and dig it for more information or investigation. It has additionally hit down information offering to corporates.
  • The Supreme Court likewise called for Parliament to draft and pass an information assurance law right away. “We have likewise urged the respondents to draw out a powerful information security system as an order based on Justice BN Srikrishna (Retd.) Committee Report with vital alterations thereto as might be esteemed fitting.”

Connecting the dots:

  1. Are privacy concerns over Aadhaar valid? Critically examine.
  2. Recently government tabled Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Bill, 2016 as a money bill in the Lok Sabha thus completely bypassing Rajya sabha. Do u think this act of the government is harmful to the federalism of India? Comment.
  3. Address the outstanding issues associated with converting Aadhar into an Act of Parliament?

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) In which case did Supreme Court rule unanimously that privacy is a constitutionally protected right in India?

  1. K.S.Puttaswamy v Union of India.
  2. Kesavananda Bharati Vs State of Kerala.
  3. Indira Sawhney & Ors v. Union of India.
  4. None of the above

Q.2) Pretomanid, bedaquiline and linezolid are often seen in the news is related to which of the following?

  1. News vaccines for Malaria
  2. Banned drugs used in the Poultry industry
  3. Treatment of drug-resistant Tuberculosis
  4. None of the above

Q.3) FAME India scheme is being implemented by which the Union Ministry?

  1. Prime Minister’s Office
  2. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
  3. Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises
  4. Ministry of Electronics and IT


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