UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (27-08-2019)

Current-Affairs-27-08-2019

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 27-08-2019

UPSC exam current affairs 27-08-2019- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • India-G7
  • Cardiovascular disease burden (CVD)
  • Conservation of Otters
  • National Digital Library (NDL)
  • INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR/AVIATION
  • INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 27-08-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (27-08-2019)

India-G7

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains II –International relations 

In News

  • The 45th version of G7 Summit is as of now being held in France. The host nation ordinarily gets the chance to welcome dignitaries from outside the G7 to go to the Summit.
  • PM Modi was welcome to go to the G7 Summit as an exceptional visitor of French President Emmanuel Macron.
  • The G7 or ‘Gathering of Seven’ are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
  • The Group was at first shaped as an exertion by the US and its partners to talk about monetary issues, which in the late 1970s included doing combating a worldwide oil emergency
  • From that point forward, the extent of G7 discourse has developed to incorporate money related emergencies,
  • monetary changeover of ex-Soviet alliance countries, psychological oppression, arms control, and medication dealing, among others.
  • The G7 doesn’t have a conventional constitution or a fixed central station. The choices taken by pioneers during yearly Summits are non-authoritative.
  • The ascent of India, China, and Brazil in the course of recent decades has diminished the G7’s pertinence, whose offer in worldwide GDP has now tumbled to around 40%

Do You Know?

  • The G7 was known as the ‘G8’ for quite a long while after the first seven were joined by Russia in 1997. The Group came back to being called G7 after Russia was removed as a part in 2014 after the last’s extension of the Crimea area of Ukraine.
  • The G20 is a bigger gathering of nations, which additionally incorporates G7 individuals. The G20 was shaped in 1999, because of a felt need to expedite more nations board to address worldwide monetary concerns.
  • Aside from the G7 nations, the G20 includes Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, and Turkey.
  • India is scheduled to have a G20 summit in 2022.

Cardiovascular disease burden (CVD)

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II – Issues relating to Health

In News

  • Seventy-five percent of CVD-related passings occur in lower-centre salary nations, as per the WHO, which arranges India among such nations.
  • In India, the main CVD ailments are ischaemic coronary illness and stroke, contributing 61.4 % and 24.9 % of absolute DALYs (Daily Adjusted Life Years) lost from CVDs.
  • The examination study found that among Indian states, West Bengal, Odisha and Tripura have the most noteworthy weight while Mizoram, Sikkim and Delhi have the least weight of strokes as far as unrefined DALY rates.
  • On account of ischaemic coronary illness, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Haryana have the most noteworthy weight while Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya have the least

Do You Know

  • DALY = Disability Adjusted Life Year = the whole of long periods of potential life lost because of sudden passing, and the long stretches of gainful life lost because of handicap.
  • DALYs are utilized to gauge the consolidated amount and personal satisfaction of a populace.
  • One DALY can be thought of as one lost year of ‘sound’ life.
  • The aggregate of these DALYs over the populace, or the weight of malady, can be thought of as an estimation of the hole between the flow wellbeing status and a perfect wellbeing circumstance where the whole populace lives to a propelled age, free of ailment and handicap – WHO

Conservation of Otters

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Environmental Conservation

In News

  • The Eighteenth Conference of the Parties (CoP18) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was as of late held in Geneva.
  • Individuals at the Conference have cast a ballot to move the smooth-covered otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) from CITES Appendix II to CITES Appendix I, a species local to the Indian subcontinent and some different pieces of Asia.
  • This is done as otters are viewed as confronting a high danger of annihilation and are inconveniently influenced by global exchange, just as natural surroundings misfortune.
  • The other recommendation that was passed was to incorporate the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) in CITES Appendix II, as it confronted dangers from chasing and assortment for use in customary medication.
  • The CITES is as a worldwide lawfully authoritative understanding planned for guaranteeing “that global exchange examples of wild creatures and plants don’t compromise their endurance”. Nonetheless, it doesn’t replace national laws.
  • The content of the Convention was concurred in Washington, DC, in 1973 and went into power in 1975. Hence, the show is now and then alluded to as the Washington Convention.

CITES Appendix:

  • The informative supplement I incorporate species “compromised with elimination”. Exchange examples of these species is allowed distinctly in extraordinary conditions.
  • Informative supplement II gives a lower level of insurance.
  • Supplement III contains species that are secured in any event one nation, which hosts approached different CITES Gatherings for help with controlling the exchange.

National Digital Library(NDL)

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains II – e-governance

In News

  • Bangalore University intends to dispatch an e-library, where understudies and staff can download books accessible online through the college’s library application.
  • The college has taken up this task under the National Digital Library of India activity.
  • Human Resource Development Ministry under its National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology propelled NDL in 2018.
  • NDL is the Single Window Platform that gathers and examines metadata from head learning foundations in India and abroad, just as other pertinent sources.
  • NDL is a computerized storehouse containing course readings, articles, recordings, book recordings, addresses, reenactments, fiction and every single other sort of learning media.
  • Anyone can get to the computerized library whenever and anyplace totally free of cost and is a stage towards “Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat”.
  • Starting at now, there are in excess of 3 crore computerized assets accessible through NDL.
  • In excess of 50 lakh, understudies have enrolled themselves in the National Digital Library with around 20 lakh dynamic clients.
  • NDL has been coordinated with UMANG App

Do You Know?

  • UMANG represents Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance created by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and National e-Governance Division (NeGD) to drive Mobile Governance in India.
  • UMANG gives a solitary stage to every single Indian Citizen to get to container India e-Gov administrations running from Central to State to Local Government bodies and other resident-driven administrations.

(MAINS FOCUS)


INFRASTRUCTURE SECTOR/AVIATION

TOPIC: General Studies 2

  • Government strategies and intercessions for advancement in different areas and issues emerging out of their plan and execution.
  • Welfare plans for powerless areas of the populace by the Center and States and the presentation of these plans

Giving wings to better air connectivity

Context:

  • A cooperative federalism framework can provide the required impetus to the civil aviation sector

Concern:

  • Common aeronautics is a Central subject and one that scarcely got huge consideration from the States as of not long ago.
  • It is clear from the way that not many States in India have dynamic common avionics offices.
  • This is likewise because of the explanation that States have had a detached job, constantly, have needed to admire the Central government for the advancement of air terminals and improving air availability.

UDAN:

  • Over the most recent four years, the circumstance has changed extensively.
  • The participation of States is viewed as a central point in the development of the common aeronautics area. The Regional Connectivity Scheme, Ude Deshka Aam Naagrik (UDAN), has become a distinct advantage as this leader program has a worked in component to create stakes of State governments in the development of the part.

Key policy interventions

  • Thirty states and Union Territories have already signed memoranda of understanding with the Central government. 
  • The policies of States and Centre are now being interlinked to make flying accessible and affordable.

Some policy intervention suggestions to jump-start the aviation market:

Firstly, For any airline in India, the cost of Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) forms about 40% of the total operational cost. 

  • Keeping oil based goods out of the domain of Goods and Services Tax (GST) might be an approach basic for the State governments however this is a stage that antagonistically impacts the extension of air administrations to the States.
  • States have high paces of significant worth included assessment (VAT) on ATF — now and then as high as 25% — which has hosed the development direction of common flight.
  • Along these lines, alleviation on ATF is a significant motivator for aircraft to enlarge their tasks as the carrier business is capital-escalated and takes a shot at extremely meagre overall revenues.
  • UDAN has spurred State governments to diminish the VAT on ATF to 1% for the flights that are worked under this plan.
  • Air terminals, for example, Jharsuguda (Odisha) and Kolhapur (Maharashtra) have effectively pulled in carriers to interface these heretofore detached locales.
  • The diminishing VAT on ATF is the greatest switch States can work, which will empower them in being an equivalent accomplice in directing segment strategy.

Secondly, The second area is in the development and management of airports

  • There are numerous territorial air terminals which can be created by States individually or in a joint effort with the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
  • In this, there have been various models of open private-organization which can be utilized to create foundations.
  • Imaginative models can be investigated to make practical ‘no-ruffle air terminals’.
  • These useful air terminals can open up districts and change the manner in which individuals travel.
  • India had around 70 air terminals since Independence as of not long ago.
  • Under UDAN, the Union government, with the assistance of the States, has operationalised 24 unserved air terminals in the course of recent years; 100 more are to be created in the following five years, which must be accomplished through the dynamic joint effort between willing States and the Center.

Third, States and the Central government can play a crucial role in supporting airlines to develop air services in the remote regions.

  • To decrease the operational expense of carriers and air terminal administrators, motivations from State governments have been looked for:
  • some as money related help, for example, VAT decrease;
  • sharing of suitability hole subsidizing with aircraft, and non-budgetary motivating forces, for example, giving security and fire benefits free of cost to air terminal administrators.
  • Under the plan, the Union government has pronounced concessions on extract obligation on ATF and made budgetary portions for air terminal advancement.
  • This one of a kind plan has been fruitful in urging carriers to work on local detached courses rather than trunk courses.
  • Under UDAN, some examples of overcoming adversity have inspired States to declare creative methodologies and arrangements on the side of carriers.

Further interventions to be needed:

  • Considering the infrastructural limitations and troublesome territory, little airship administrators should be empowered.
  • Zones which can’t be associated definitively by street or rail must be connected via air. States may unite their pertinent plans identifying with the travel industry, wellbeing, and protection for supporting air availability to enhance the destinations of the local network.
  • For this States need to make a favourable business condition to encourage the solid goals of a thriving Indian working class to fly in any event once per year. It would support ticket deals from the present degree of eight crore household tickets.
  • Creating air terminals, boosting aircrafts and pooling assets of both the Union and State governments can quicken the orchestrated development of the Indian common avionics part which would be evenhanded and comprehensive.

Ude Desh ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) scheme

Key pointers:

  • The Civil Aviation Ministry propelled Regional Connectivity Scheme UDAN (Ude Desh ka Aam Nagrik) in 2017.
  • UDAN is an inventive plan to build up the local avionics showcase. It is a market-based component in which aircraft offer for seat endowments.
  • This first-of-its-sort plot universally will make reasonable yet monetarily feasible and gainful flights on provincial courses with the goal that flying gets moderate to the basic man even in communities.

Connecting the dots:

  1. Fundamentally inspect the essentialness of provincial network for a creating economy like India. Additionally, talk about the highlights of the UDAN conspires propelled by the administration.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Respective, local and worldwide groupings and understandings including India as well as influencing India’s inclinations.
  • Impact of arrangements and legislative issues of created and creating nations on India’s inclinations, Indian diaspora.
  • Significant International establishments, organizations and fora-their structure, command.

Talking trade with the EU

Concerns:

  • As the economy experiences the U.S.- China exchange war, it is basic for India to seek after an organized commerce understanding (FTA) with the European Union (EU).
  • A month ago, moderators from the two sides met in Brussels, for more discusses talks, however, time is currently running out for New Delhi.
  • Moving past the U.S. furthermore, China, this is the opportune time for India to draw in the EU as an imperative law based accomplice to create a good geo-financial request

A series of economic and geo-strategic factors make the need for an economic deal with the EU more urgent.

First, India risks being left behind amidst a collapsing global trade architecture, rising protectionism and a new emphasis on bilateral FTAs.

  • India is the main significant power without an FTA with any of its top exchange accomplices, including the EU, the U.S., China and Gulf economies.
  • This circumstance isn’t viable as a most exchange is presently determined either by FTAs or worldwide worth chains.
  • The EU’s restored spotlight on FTAs could just intensify this hazard for India.
  • In June, Brussels closed an exchange accord with Vietnam and a memorable FTA with the Mercosur nations in South America.
  • India, meanwhile, is clinging to its Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. Its status under the EU’s Generalized Scheme of Preferences (GSP) will confront the rising challenge from Pakistan or Sri Lanka, who appreciate GSP+ benefits.

Stuck in a ‘grey zone’

  • Without preferential FTA tariffs or GSP+ status, India will struggle to keep exports competitive for Europe, it’s largest trade partner where 20% of its exports land up.

Positive aspects of India include:

  • India’s discussions with the EU have been progressing gradually yet consistently.
  • From agribusiness to protected innovation, the EU and India have discreetly been trading and adjusting sees.
  • New territories like internet business have enrolled a critical combination since India’s situation on information protection isn’t that not the same as the EU’s.
  • Likewise, with the EU-Japan bargain, India may wish to continue at two paces: it could postpone exchanges about the free progression of information for a couple of years and stop contrasts on the expense ban issue or information localisation, even while resolving to change in different zones.

Second, beyond mere economic cost-benefit analysis, India must also approach an EU FTA from a geostrategic perspective.

  • With Mr Trump’s hostile spotlight focussing on India and lingering concerns about the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, New Delhi must realise the long-term strategic benefits of a trade deal with Europe.

Democratic regulations

  • EU mediators are presently all the more ready to make concessions on work or ecological guidelines, which used to be inconceivable deterrents.
  • The breakdown of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and worries about over the top financial dependence on China have impelled the EU to turn into somewhat more down to business, which New Delhi should use before it’s past the point of no return.
  • The EU likewise offers India a remarkable administrative model that adjusts development, security and guidelines.
  • India’s administration structure shares the European standards of just straightforwardness and multi-partner interest on an assortment of new innovative areas, from directing man-made consciousness to 5G systems.
  • New Delhi must consider this to be a vital premium that isn’t represented in an exacting money-saving advantage monetary examination.

Key notes:

  • A Free Trade Agreement or FTA is an understanding between at least two nations where the nations concede to specific commitments that influence exchange products and enterprises, and insurances for financial specialists and licensed innovation rights, among different subjects.
  • FTAs typically spread exchange merchandise, (for example, agrarian or mechanical items) or exchange administrations, (for example, banking, development, exchanging and so on.). FTAs can likewise cover different regions, for example, protected innovation rights (IPRs), venture, government acquisition and rivalry arrangement, and so on.
  • India has respective concurrences with ASEAN, European Union, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand.
  • Article 1 of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which articulates the most supported country (MFN) guideline of WTO expresses that “any bit of leeway, support, benefit, or insusceptibility conceded by any contracting gathering to any item starting in or bound for some other nation will be concurred quickly and genuinely to the like item beginning in or bound for the regions of all other contracting parties.”
  • This MFN guideline is allowed for framing FTAs under some particular conditions according to the arrangements of the WTO Agreements.

Proposed India-EU FTA:

  • India-European Union (EU) FTA, formally known as the Broad-Based Trade and Investment Agreement is being consulted for a long time.
  • Be that as it may, in 2013, there was a breakdown in talks between the different sides and the discussions have been slowed down from that point onward.
  • The European Union needs India to decrease the import obligations on liquor and autos and India needs the EU to announce India as an ‘information secure’ nation.

Conclusion:

  • In respect to the FTAs, India ought to be extremely cautious in the provisos of exchange. Regardless of having a solid administrations segment in a chosen few classes, ( IT, ITES, Healthcare and Education and so forth.) the agrarian area just as the modern segment, particularly the Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises are still not as develop and solid when contrasted with different nations with which India is arranging FTAs.

Connecting the dots:

  • What are organized commerce understandings? Talk about the advantages of organized commerce understandings.
  • Basically investigate the unhindered commerce understandings marked by India?

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) UMANG app by Government of India intends to achieve which of the following objectives?

  1. Monitoring of Villages and Households Electrification 
  2. To curb illegal coal mining like rat-hole mining, pilferage
  3. To promote mobile governance in India
  4. None of the above

Q.2) Consider the following statements about CITES

  1. is as an international legally binding agreement aimed at restricting the trade in endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  2. It replaces the National domestic laws
  3. It is also sometimes referred to as Washington Convention as it was agreed in Washington, DC, in 1973.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3 only

Q.3) India is a member of which of the following international organisations?

  1. G7
  2. Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
  3. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
  4. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

Select the correct answer from codes given below.

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1,3 and 4 only
  4. 1,2 and 4 only


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