UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (21-01-2020)

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (21-01-2020)

upsc exam current affairs 21-01-2020

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 21-01-2020

UPSC exam current affairs 21-01-2020 The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • SC: Welfare schemes for religious minorities
  • Tigersharks: India is placing Sukhoi jets in South India
  • Government  to seek green clearance for water aerodromes
  • Governance

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 21-01-2020 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (21-01-2020)

SC: Welfare schemes for religious minorities

Part of: GS Prelims –Polity and GS-II- Vulnerable section

In news:

  • The Supreme Court requested that the UP government react to an appeal asserting that the administration is oppressing Hindus by giving strict minorities welfare plans worth a great many crores.

From Prelims point of view:

National Commission for Minorities

  • Statutory body set up under the National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992.
  • Not at all like different bodies like NCSC and NCST, NCM has no protected sponsorship or status.
  • Works under the Ministry of Minority Affairs.
  • It investigates grumblings from individuals from five strict networks advised as a minority network in 2014. ( Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Zoroastrians (Parsis) Jain people group)

Who are minorities?

  • Constitution talks about minorities ‘dependent on religion or language’ and privileges of minorities have been spelt out in the Constitution in detail.
  • Six strict networks, viz. Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have been informed in Gazette of India as minority networks by Union Government all over India.

Electoral bonds scheme not to be stalled

Part of: GS Prelims –Polity and GS-II- Election commission 

In news:

  • Boss Justice of India (CJI) said that the Supreme Court had thought that it was pointless to remain the constituent bonds conspire (EBS).
  • Incomparable Court as of late passed a break request guiding ideological groups to give total data to the ECI in fixed covers on each and every giver and commitment got by them till date through constituent bonds.

From Prelims point of view:

Electoral bonds

  • The Electoral securities are instruments/protections used to give assets to the ideological groups.
  • These bonds will be on the lines of carrier bonds or promissory notes wherein the backer (bank) will be the overseer and will pay the person who holds the bonds (ideological group.

Features:

  • The giver may move toward these banks and buy the bonds.
  • The giver will be allowed to purchase the bonds through check/computerized instalment. Thus the personality of the benefactors will be secured (if the contributors are distinguished, they may become involved with political competition particularly if the giver is a specialist).
  • The giver will give these bonds to the ideological group.
  • The ideological group needs to encash it into the record which is enrolled with the Election Commission of India.

This is also important for Mains examination we will soon take this issue in Mains Focus section Stay tuned!!

Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR)

  • Non-factional, a non-administrative association which works in the territory of constituent and political changes.
  • ADR targets getting straightforwardness and responsibility Indian legislative issues and lessening the impact of cash and muscle power in decisions.
  • National Election Watch (NEW) is an aggregation of more than 1200 associations the nation over.
  • ADR has become the single information point for data/examination of Indian governmental issues.

Tigersharks: India is placing Sukhoi jets in South India

Part of: GS Prelims –Polity and GS-II- Internal Security

In news:

  • Flying corps dispatched the 222 squadrons, otherwise called ‘Tigersharks’, for their Thanjavur base Tamil Nadu.
  • It will assume a key job in keeping China’s developing clout in the Indian Ocean district.
  • Brahmos is the heaviest weapon to be sent on Su-30 MKI warrior airplane, with a load of 2.5 tons.

From Prelims point of view:

Sukhoi Su-30MKI

  • A twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia
  • Integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as French and Israeli sub-systems.

BRAHMOS

  • Joint venture between India & Russia.
  • Brahmos is named on the rivers Brahmaputra and Moskva.
  • air to surface missile with a flight range of around 300 km.

India’s entry into the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) has extended the range of the BRAHMOS missile to reach 450 km-600km, a shade above its current MTCR capped range of 300 km.

  • Brahmos is a multiplatform i.e it tends to be propelled from land, air, and ocean.
  • It works on the “Fire and Forgets” guideline i.e it doesn’t require further direction after dispatch.
  • The squadron has Sukhoi-30 conveying the BrahMos voyage rocket.

Government  to seek green clearance for water aerodromes

Part of: GS Prelims –Polity and GS-II- Vulnerable section

In news:

  • The Union Civil Aviation Ministry has given in-principle clearance to set up aerial airports (AIRDROME) in the country.
  • Five states – Odisha, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Assam – have been identified for its launch.
  • In the first phase of the project, Chilka Lake (Odisha), Sabarmati River Front and Sardar Sarovar dam (Gujarat) have been marked for the development of such facilities.

From Prelims point of view:

UDAN: ‘Ude Desh ka Aam Nagarik’

  • the scheme is a part of the National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP).
  • UDAN is a regional connectivity scheme spearheaded by the Government of India (GoI).
  • Aims to develop smaller regional airports to allow common citizens easier access to aviation services.

Objectives :

  • Operationalization and development of 425 underserved or unserved airports in the country
  • Boost inclusive economic development by providing faster connectivity.
  • Recent controversy concerning the Kerala government’s move to challenge the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019

Kerala’s move to challenge CAA 

Part of: GS Prelims –Polity and GS-II- Governor 

In news:

  • Development of air transport infrastructure in remote areas aiding job growth.
  • Kerala Govt chose to sue the Centre in the Supreme Court under Article 131 without first informing Governor

From Prelims point of view:

Article 131

  • Article 131: Original and exclusive jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
  • Here, ‘Original’ and ‘Exclusive’ means that the Court has the power and authority to address, hear and rule a decision in the initial instance.
  • The exclusivity factor of the jurisdiction provides exceptional and particular power to the Court to hear and decide the matter than any other Courts

Article 167 :

  • It is the Chief Minister’s duty to communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration and proposals for legislation.
  • It enjoins the Chief Minister to furnish such information relating to the
  • administration as the Governor may call for.
  • There may be occasions when the Governor may need to ask a top bureaucrat or the head of the police force for a report on a major incident or development, but even that should be for the limited purpose of getting an accurate picture before sending a report to the Centre

Sarkaria commission:

  • In June 1983 the Union Government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Justice R.S. Sarkaria to review the question of the centre-state relationship

Iran to quit NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Part of: GS Prelims –IR and GS-II- International Organization

In news:

  • Iran took steps to pull back from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) if European nations bring claimed infringement of the notable atomic arrangement with world forces to the United Nations Security Council.

From Prelims point of view:

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  • The NPT is a milestone worldwide bargain whose goal is to forestall the spread of atomic weapons and weapons innovation, to advance collaboration in the tranquil employments of atomic vitality and to facilitate the objective of accomplishing atomic demilitarization and general and finish demobilization.
  • The Treaty speaks to the main restricting duty in a multilateral arrangement to the objective of demilitarization by the atomic weapon States.
  • The arrangement builds up a shields framework under the duty of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

Iran Nuclear deal

  • Iran consented to get control over its atomic program in a 2015 arrangement hit with the US, UK, Russia, China, France and Germany.
  • Under the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPoA) Tehran consented to fundamentally cut its stores of axes, improved uranium and overwhelming water, every single key part for atomic weapons.
  • The JCPOA built up the Joint Commission, with the arranging parties all spoke to, to screen usage of the understanding.

(MAINS FOCUS)


Governance

Topic: General Studies 2:

  • Issues identifying with the improvement and the executives of Social Sector/Services identifying with Health
  • Impact of strategies and governmental issues of created and creating nations on India’s advantage.

Healthcare: The Brazilian Way

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 21st January 2020
Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 21st January 2020

Source of Pic: The Hindu

Context:

The Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro visits New Delhi this Republic Day and one fascinating field of participation to investigate in the key organization is human services.

Brazil, the main nation where in excess of 100 million occupants have a widespread wellbeing framework Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS). Considering the framework will have significant exercises for Ayushman Bharat Scheme.

About Brazils SUS

  • SUS, supported by the standards of value, solidary and social interest, planned to build up an all-inclusive, complete and decentralized wellbeing framework, for nothing out of pocket at the purpose of administration arrangement.
  • The Unified Health System (SUS), which ensured free wellbeing inclusion that included pharmaceutical administrations, was composed into the new Constitution in 1988. It characterized wellbeing as a widespread right and a State obligation.
  • The SUS set off a central rebuilding of how the wellbeing framework is administered which included
    • process of decentralization and new arrangements for sharing of responsibilities across federal, state and municipal levels.
    • A gradual increase in public spending on health
  • National Health Identification Card: permits a patient’s wellbeing record to be gotten to through a focal database from any open or private medical clinic inside the Unified Health System organize.
  • Family Health Program: Community-based medicinal services organize who perform month to month visits to each family selected the program. They direct wellbeing advancement and counteraction exercises and viably deal with the connection among residents and the social insurance framework.

Achievements of SUS

  • Consistently, the SUS covers in excess of 2,000,000 births, 10 million emergency clinic affirmations, and about one billion mobile methodologies.
  • Future has expanded from 64 years to right around 76 years.
  • Newborn child Mortality Rate has declined from 53 to 14 for every 1,000 live births.
  • 95% of those that look for care in the SUS can get treatment
  • Monetarily Prudent accomplished by the better administrative framework. The expense of the all-inclusive wellbeing framework in Brazil midpoints around $600 per individual, while in the U.K., this number spans $3.428. Brazil burns through 3.8% of GDP on SUS, while UK which runs a comparable program called NHS burns through 7.9% of its GDP.
  • The Family Health Program: Expanded from 4% of inclusion in 2000 to up to 64% of the general populace in 2015 which has decreased IMR and expanded grown-up work supply.

Challenges for SUS

  • Financial and political emergencies joined with gravity arrangements, represent a significant hazard to UHC. Along these lines, the framework needs to stay versatile to such outer stuns.
  • Inner stuns such quick maturing prompting ascending in illness trouble. General wellbeing spending in Brazil will in this way need to increment by almost 1.6 rate purposes of the GDP by 2060 so as to cover the human services needs of a quick maturing society.

The lesson for India from the Healthcare system in Brazil

  • Increment in Public wellbeing financing – Public wellbeing use is still low in India, at around 1.3% of GDP.
  • Family Health program which included a standard visit to families guarantees normal observing of the wellbeing needs of individuals and in this way fortifies the essential medicinal services framework
  • The requirement for decentralization of the medicinal services obligations by enabling regions with assets and forces.
  • National Health Identification Card plan can be incorporated by utilizing Aadhar biological system in order to make a superior arrangement of coordination among open and private area social insurance establishments managed by the Health Agency

Way Ahead

  • In a heterogeneous society like India where there are provincial aberrations, the one-size-fits-all methodology isn’t prudent.
  • Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, and Bihar contrast from numerous points of view and this decent variety must be met by a multifaceted blend of institutionalized projects and self-sufficiency to embrace strategies as indicated by their attributes.

Connecting the dots

  • Ayushman Bharat’s 1.5 Lakh wellness centres and Brazils Family Health Programme
  • UK’s National Health Service
  • Private Health care provision through Insurance Model Vs Public Health Service delivery through government hospitals

Economy: Education

Topic: General Studies 3:

  • Indian Economy and issues identifying with arranging, activation, of assets, development, advancement and business.
  • Government Budgeting

GST- Critical analysis of its working

Context: 

Goods and services tax (GST) that was presented in India in July 2017 has been generally reprimanded as having neglected to convey the advantages that were anticipated from it particularly in the scenery of low GDP development rate.

What were the basic expectations (benefits) from the GST regime?

  • Reconciliation of the Indian commercial center
  • Production of scale efficiencies and
  • Upgraded total national output (GDP) development

There is no efficient examination yet of the initial two, while GDP development has eased back in the previous barely any years.

It isn’t right to accuse the GST system alone for the current situation with the economy as different players are liable for the situation. A portion of different elements are:

  1. The innovation was the greatest let-down during the rollout and this was dealt with by a private-area element. Censuring the administration for mechanical issues is uncalled for.
  2. Incomes of nearby bodies going down after GST presentation was accused on GST system as a portion of the neighbourhood charges were subsumed under GST

Counter Argument: State Governments have been hesitant to regress assets to neighbourhood bodies. They have been very reprobate in comprising money commissions and in this way planning rules for the devolution of monetary incomes to nearby bodies

  1. Deficiency (comparative with desires) in GST assortments is presently being accused, to a limited extent, on remiss supervision and oversight.

Counter Argument: The choice to depend on self-revelations and filings, instead of on oversight and supervision, was conscious. It was intended to give time to organizations to adjust to the new system.

  1. Expense rates are high with various chunks: The Arvind Subramanian panel pegged the income nonpartisan GST rate at 15%

Counter Arguments: When the new expense was propelled in July 2017, the rate was 14.4%, and throughout the following two years, it had come down to around 11.6%. The number of things saddled at the most noteworthy GST chunk pace of 28% had descended from 226 in July 2017 to an unimportant 28.

Further, several key categories of goods remain outside the GST’s purview. 

Thus, far from being a deterrent to economic activity, the GST had acted as a countercyclical fiscal policy too

What then is the reason for a slowdown?

  • Exemptions granted to various businesses from having to pay the tax, the composition schemes made available to small businesses and weaker economic activity have contributed to slower growth in GST revenues.
  • Rural Sector Slowdown due to bad monsoons in consequent years
  • Banking Sector Crisis

So is GST all fine and has it not added to economic difficulties?

GST still has certain issues and where GST may have added to the nation’s general monetary challenges is in the administration’s area.

The quantity of structures that administration makers need to document has expanded extensively. Partially, this is a result of the different enrollments required in each state, instead of the single enlistment pre-GST

With the administration’s segment being the Indian economy’s greatest, the expanded intricacy and troubles looked by specialist co-ops may have dominated the proficiency picks up that collected to merchandise and coordinations suppliers

Way Forward

  • Rates would be adjusted only once in a year, which is agreed to by GST Council. This ensures tax predictability thus enhancing the ease of doing business.
  • Forms and returns need to be simplified.
  • Exemption limits for the filing of GST could be raised further without any impact on revenue

Connecting the Dots

  • Direct tax code
  • GST regime and its impact on Federal fiscal structure

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) The Dinesh Goswami Committee was concerned with:

  1. de-nationalisation of banks
  2. electoral reforms
  3. steps to put down an insurgency in the north-east
  4. the problem of the Chakmas

Q.2) Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other labelled as Reason (R) :

Assertion (A) : The word minority is not defined in the Constitution of India.

Reason (R) : The Minorities Commission is not a constitutional body.

In the context of the above two statements, which one of the following is correct? 

  1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
  2. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation
  3. A is true but R is false
  4. A is false but R is true

Q.3) Consider the following statements about the minorities India: 

  1. The Government of India has notified five communities, namely, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists and Zoroastrians as Minorities
  2. The National Commission for Minorities was given statutory status in 1993
  3. The smallest religious minority in India are the Zoroastrians
  4. The Constitution of India recognizes and protects religious and linguistic minorities

Which of these statements are correct?

  1. 2 and 3 
  2. 1 and 4
  3. 2, 3 and 4 
  4. 1, 2 and 4

Q.4) The power of the Supreme Court of India to decide disputes between the Centre and the State falls under its: 

  1. advisory jurisdiction
  2. appellate jurisdiction
  3. original jurisdiction
  4. constitutional jurisdiction


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