UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (26-09-2019)

upsc exam current affairs 26-09-2019

Highlights|UPSC Exam Current Affairs 26-09-2019

Current Affairs and News (26-09-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Impeachment
  • Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)  
  • Higher Education Bill
  • India-Pacific Islands
  • New IPCC report warns of dire threat to oceans
  • Rise in Mobile Phone Exports
  • Ayushman Bharat
  • Implementation

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 26-09-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (26-09-2019)

Impeachment

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II – Polity

In News

  • Indictment is the leveling of charges against a chosen authority by an authoritative body. On the off chance that the charges are demonstrated right, it prompts expulsion of authority from the post.
  • Formal reprimand request has been propelled against US President Donald Trump for his supposed maltreatment of Presidential forces.

US impeachment process

  • The US House of agent (435 individuals) needs to pass the denunciation movement by a straightforward lion’s share, after examination by legal executive advisory group
  • The movement of Impeachment at that point goes to the Senate (Upper House comprising of 100 individuals), where a preliminary directed by Chief Justice happens with agent from House going about as investigators and the President and his lawyers displaying his guard
  • A two-third lion’s share in Senate is important to convict and expel the President.
  • On the off chance that the President is indicted, the Vice-President assumes control over the White House for residual time of residency.

Indian Impeachment process

  • In India, President can be impugned for infringement of the Constitution (Article 61)
  • The movement for impugning President can be presented in any House of Parliament.
  • After the examination, the movement of arraignment must be passed by a dominant part of at the very least 66% of the all out participation of the House by the two Houses of the Parliament.

Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG)

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II- International relations – India & World

In News

  • PM Modi pitches for India’s entrance to NSG during his location in the Bloomberg Global Business Forum

About NSG

  • NSG is a multilateral fare control system and a gathering of atomic provider nations that try to avert atomic multiplication by controlling the fare of materials, gear, and innovation that can be utilized to produce atomic weapons.
  • NSG controls a large portion of the world’s atomic exchange.
  • NSG shaped in 1974 comprises of 48 individuals which incorporate the five atomic weapon states US, UK, France, China, and Russia.
  • It’s anything but a proper association (however a casual gathering), and its rules are not official. Choices, remembering for enrollment, are made by accord
  • While US and different nations bolster India’s entrance into NSG, China has restricted it saying India has not marked Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty.

About NPT

  • Non-expansion Treaty is a global arrangement, which came into power in 1970 with the target of anticipating the spread of atomic innovation and atomic weapons
  • India would not sign NPT in light of the fact that
    • The NPT characterizes “atomic weapons states” as those that tried gadgets before 1967, which implies India can’t ever be one.
    • No fixed courses of events have been referenced for demilitarization
    • NPT is out of line settlement as atomic weapon states have no commitment to surrender them while non-atomic states are not permitted to have them.
  • The atomic forces were persuaded that NPT alone would not end the spread of atomic weapons. Thus, NSG was shaped in 1974 to control supply of atomic fuel and innovation.

Higher Education Bill

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-III – Education and governance

In News

  • A bill that intends to make a solitary controller for advanced education, supplanting UGC and AICTE, is probably going to be presented in winter session of Parliament
  • The bill proposes to bring all regions of advanced education – including specialized, building and lawful courses-under the ambit of Single Umbrella body HECI (Higher Education Commission of India)
  • Therapeutic instruction, in any case, won’t go under HECI as indicated by draft bill.

About UGS & AICTE

  • UGC and AICTE are independent bodies which supervise the accreditation, guideline and upkeep of instructing, assessment and research principles for Universities& specialized training establishments the nation over
  • These scholarly capacities will currently be moved to the new HECI.

Issues with fund devolution

  • Prior, AICTE and UGC were additionally answerable for dispensing open assets to Universities and schools.
  • There was proposition to bring these store devolution controls legitimately under the HRD Minister yet because of resistance on the dread of abuse, this arrangement was dropped in late draft of the bill.
  • Rather, another independent body will be made to oversee the doling out of assets to advanced education organizations.

India-Pacific Islands

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II – International Affairs

In News

  • India reported USD 150 million credit extension to the gathering of Pacific Island Nations for sun powered, sustainable power source and atmosphere related tasks during the India-Pacific Islands Developing States (PSIDS) Leaders’ Meeting
  • India additionally reported allotment of 12 million dollars award (1 million dollar to each PSIDS) towards usage of high effect formative venture in their preferred territory.
  • India’s association with Pacific Island countries has extended with the advancement of Act East Policy, bringing about the setting up of the activity situated Forum for India-Pacific Island Cooperation (FIPIC).
  • The first and second releases of the FIPIC occurred in Fiji (2015) and Jaipur (2016),3rd FIPIC Summit to be held in Port Moresby in first 50% of 2020.

New IPCC report warns of dire threat to oceans

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-III – Environmental Conservation

In News

  • As indicated by its report, the sea is anticipated to progress to uncommon conditions with expanded temperatures, further sea fermentation, marine heatwaves and increasingly visit outrageous El Niño and La Niña occasions
  • Worldwide sea has warmed unabated since 1970 and has taken up over 90% of the overabundance heat in the atmosphere framework
  • Since 1993, the pace of sea warming has dramatically increased. Marine heatwaves have likely multiplied in recurrence since 1982 and are expanding in force.

About IPCC

  • IPCC was set up in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to survey environmental change dependent on the most recent science.
  • It goes about as the pinnacle arbitrator for logical proof on the effect of an unnatural weather change.

Rise in Mobile Phone Exports

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-III – Economy

In News

  • Cell phone trades developed more than eight-crease to Rs 11,200 crore in 2018-19 more than 2017-18 figures however on a little base and has surpassed imports for first time
  • Complete number of handsets created in India arrived at 29 crores units esteems at 1.81 lakh crore rupees in 2018-19 which was prior just 5.8 crore units in 2014-15 qualities at 18,900 crore rupees.

India’s policy push for Electronics

  • India has set “Net Zero imports” in gadgets by 2020 under Digital India guide discharged in 2014
  • For versatile handset section alone, the legislature under the National Policy on Electronics 2019 had set an objective of making 100 crore portable handsets indigenously by 2025 esteemed at around 13 lakh crore rupees.
  • Out of 100 versatile handset producing objective, 60 crore will be for sends out qualities at around 7 lakh crore rupees.

Miscellaneous

Global Goalkeeper award

  • PM Modi got the Global Goalkeeper Award for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
  • The Global Goalkeeper Award is a “unique acknowledgment” by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The honor praises a political pioneer who has “exhibited their duty to the Global Goals through significant work in their nation and additionally universally.”

About Swachh Bharat Mission

  • Propelled in 2014, Swachh Bharat Mission means to quicken the endeavors to accomplish all inclusive sanitation inclusion in the nation.
  • Around 90 million toilets have been worked to wipe out open crap by October 2, 2019.
  • At present, 98% of Indian towns have country sanitation inclusion rather than 38% four years prior.

Rantidine

  • Medication controllers alert against ranitidine utilize following worries over its defilement by malignant growth causing specialists
  • Rantidine is a stomach settling agent – drug which diminishes stomach corrosive generation. It is normally utilized in treatment of peptic ulcer sickness, gastroesophageal reflux infection.

(MAINS FOCUS)


BIO-TECHNOLOGY

TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights

Context:

  • India is among the principal nations to set up a specific office for the improvement of research and HR in the biotechnology segment.
  • Present day biotechnological inquire about is costly.
  • It requires an exceptionally prepared and gifted workforce and access to costly instruments.

What is Biotechnology?

  • Biotechnology is the wide zone of science including living frameworks and living beings to create or make items, or “any mechanical application that utilizations natural frameworks, living life forms
  • it frequently covers with the (related) fields of atomic science, bio-building, biomedical designing, bio producing, sub-atomic building, and so forth
  • biotechnology has extended to incorporate new and differing sciences, for example, genomics, recombinant quality strategies, applied immunology, and improvement of pharmaceutical treatments and indicative tests.

Did you know:

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science concentrating on the structure, work, development, mapping, and altering of genomes. A genome is a life form’s finished arrangement of DNA, including the entirety of its qualities. (Past UPSC PRELIMS QUESTION )

Did you know:

The greater part of the top notch explore yield has originated from a bunch of foundations with better logical framework. why?

  • In India, undue to a “distribute or die” culture that boosts numbers over quality.
  • Throughout the years, the focal point of research has gradually moved from crucial to applied research and requesting brisk returns.
  • Contrasted with the created economies (the United States), biotechnology investigate in India is for the most part subsidized by the open exchequer.like the IT segment no making of occupations in biotechnology.

Employment  :

In India, dissimilar to the IT part no production of employments in biotechnology. 

  • low wages of researchers (contrasted with the created economies)
  • examine regularly expects access to labs with top of the line logical foundation,
  • The stockpile of costly synthetic concoctions and reagents with least transporting time between the provider and the client
  • trained work culture and documentation practice because of administrative and protected innovation recording necessity
  • Biotechnology items and arrangements frequently require moral and administrative freedom, making the procedure long, costly and bulky.
  • nature of the work in the biotechnology segment is specific, subsequently most employments are loaded up with experienced and talented researchers leaving the interest for youthful and unpracticed ones low.

Chinese example:

  • In contrast to India, China has a lot more labs with the best of logical foundation;
  • Chinese understudies and researchers dwarf Indians about 5:1 in most American colleges in the existence sciences/science related orders.
  • A blasting economy and a higher science spending plan combined with an adaptable employing framework have made Chinese colleges and research labs pull in numerous abroad Chinese researchers.

Boston and Silicon Valley in the U.S example :

  • The accessibility of subsidizing, framework and gifted workforce,
  • the nearness of first rate explore organizations and colleges in the region.

make these two spots among the most alluring areas for biotech new businesses anyplace.

Innovation, entrepreneurship, and technology creation:

  • The legislature has been supporting biotech business people. Activities through the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) of the Department of Biotechnology
  • The administration is extremely reassuring and advancing business enterprise, yet the way of life of foundations and researchers to be pioneering will require some investment.

Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) 

  • Is a not-revenue driven Enterprise, set up by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India
  • Interface Agency to reinforce and enable the rising Biotech venture to attempt key research and advancement, tending to broadly important item improvement needs.
  • BIRAC’s point is to play a transformative and reactant job in building a US$ 100 billion Indian bioeconomy.

Way forward:

  • The products of applied research will possibly come when we start putting resources into fundamental research without requesting snappy returns.
  • The legislature ought to empower and boost the private part to put significantly in applied research
  • Our administration needs to make the way toward procuring in our colleges and national labs more straightforward and adaptable, not really give more pay, to draw in the splendid abroad Indian researchers.
  • the scholarly world industry linkage will do the much-required correspondence and comprehension of the issues at the two closures.

What has to be done:

  • Adaptable approach in the establishments to permit researchers brood new businesses in their labs while holding their positions.
  • The administration should let researchers from look into foundations and colleges take unpaid leave to join the business for a fixed period.
  • The legislature ought to loosen up rules to name analysts from industry in workforce positions with the opportunity to educate, take an interest, and take understudies.
  • A continued exertion in empowering and advancing science-driven advancement in our scholastic foundations
  • A strong scholarly community industry coordinated effort, biotechnology-drove development.

Conclusion:

  • One needs to go past the customary pointers, for example, the quantities of foundations framed, understudies and researchers prepared, and the quantity of licenses documented to pass judgment on the division’s presentation, and its effect on the economy and society in general.
  • in contrast to the IT segment, a continued advancement and item improvement model in the biotechnology field without enhancing the scholastic organizations is unimaginable.

Connecting the dots:

  • Has the biotechnology division satisfied its guarantee? Or then again would it say it was all fake confidence? Break down
  • Why has India not delivered another Jagadish Chandra Bose or G.N. Ramachandran regardless of the biotechnology look into spending growing a few folds?

HEALTH

TOPIC:General Studies 2

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Ayushman Bharat

Introduction:

  • Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme having focal part segment under Ayushman Bharat Mission tied down in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • It is an umbrella of two significant wellbeing activities, in particular Health and health Centers and National Health Protection Scheme.
  • The adventure of Ayushman Bharat began in Jangla in Chhattisgarh.
  1. Health and Wellness Centres
  • Under this 1.5 lakh existing sub focuses will bring human services framework closer to the homes of individuals as Health and wellbeing focuses.
  • These focuses will give extensive social insurance, including for non-transferable maladies and maternal and youngster wellbeing administrations.
  1. National Health Protection Mission (AB-PMJAY)
  • Abdominal muscle PMJAY gives a characterized advantage front of Rs. 5 lakh for each family every year. This spread will deal with practically all auxiliary consideration and the vast majority of tertiary consideration methods.
  • The advantage spread will likewise incorporate pre and post-hospitalization costs.
  • PM-JAY has tried to cover a populace bigger than that of Canada, United States and Mexico set up together.

Implementation 

  • At the national level to deal with, a National Health Agency has been set up. States/UTs are encouraged to actualize the plan by a devoted element called State Health Agency (SHA).
  • A few states have combined their numerous continuous plans with PMJAY to make usage more straightforward for the two recipients and taking part emergency clinics. 

Ex: Karnataka has blended seven diverse existing plans into one, while Kerala has consolidated three unique plans.

Criticisms:

  • India has gained strong ground in diminishing passings from basic non-transferable maladies, for example, malignant growth, and heart and lung infections, yet insufficient to meet universal targets, similar to the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • India is likewise falling behind on maternal and kid mortality measures, number of specialists, and medical clinic beds.
  • In spite of the fact that India is the third biggest maker, by volume, of conventional prescriptions, there are issues with their openness.
  • Indeed, even with the presentation of AB, 70% of human services cost are out of pocket (because of cost of prescriptions)
  • Because of postponements and excesses at the Indian Patent Office, it takes somewhere in the range of five and seven years for a patent to be analyzed, which means patients won’t get to another medication until numerous years after its worldwide dispatch. In India, administration and formality includes further deferrals of around 400-500 days.

Data:

  • Access to prescriptions remains at under 35% in numerous Indian states
  • India spends nearly nothing, in general, on medicinal services—3.66% of GDP (Center and states joined) contrasted with the base of 6% of GDP prescribed by the World Health Organization.

Way forward:

  • There are a few ease steps the administration could take quickly to improve and quicken access to drugs to decrease non-transmittable illness mortality. These include cutting formality, assessments, and boundaries to exchange.
  • There is GST of 5% on most meds and a 12% GST on a wide scope of other significant restorative supplies, including wraps and sterile bandage, diabetic checking gear, photographic plates utilized in x-beams, etc. Which must be managed.
  • It would be a simple success for the administration to abrogate GST, and duties on prescriptions and therapeutic supplies. (Numerous nations have done it)
  • The legislature, should hope to wipe out however many of pointless guidelines as could reasonably be expected. For example, Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) incorporate wasteful traditions strategies, formality, and covered up charges and furthermore oppressive marking and bundling prerequisites.
  • Patent related red tapes must be decreased.

Example : 

Mexico and various Gulf states have found a way to decrease tranquilize enrollment overabundances by going into collaboration concurrences with other develop medicate administrative specialists. India must do as such

Conclusion:

  • Ayushman Bharat has given a stage and structure to the nation to quicken its encouraging towards exhaustive widespread medicinal services.
  • As the Ayushman Bharat insurgency unfurls, we are hopeful that India will ensure medicinal services is never again a benefit and is accessible to each Indian.

Connecting the dots:

  • In spite of the fact that India is the third biggest maker, by volume, of conventional drugs, there are issues with their availability. Fundamentally dissect.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Q.1)Global Goalkeeper Award is given by which organisation/body ?

  1. UNESCO
  2. World Economic Forum
  3. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  4. Amnesty International

Q.2)Consider the following statements

  1. India has set “Net Zero imports” in electronics by 2020 under Digital India roadmap released in 2014
  2. The government under the National Policy on Electronics 2019 had set a target of making 100 crore mobile handsets indigenously by 2025 valued at about 13 lakh crore rupees

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3)Ranitidine often seen in the news is related to which area?

  1. Vaccine against Dengue
  2. Indigenously developed drug to treat Drug resistant-TB
  3. Antacid
  4. None of the above

Q.4)Consider the following statements 

  1. IPCC was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess climate change based on the latest science.
  2. Global ocean has warmed unabated since 1970 and has taken up nearly 20% of the excess heat in the climate system while the rest of excess heating has led to rise in atmospheric temperature

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.5)Consider the following statements about Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

  1. NSG is part of UNO which controls the world trade in nuclear material and nuclear technology
  2. India is a member of the group

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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