UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (29-07-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 29-07-2019

Current Affairs and News (29-07-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • RCEP negotiations
  • Cybersecurity – Agent Smith
  • Railway reforms
  • Himalayan conclave at Mussorie
  • Hurdles in Colistin ban
  • Ban or regulate cryptocurrency?
  • Army’s first Integrated Battle Groups

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 29-07-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (29-07-2019)

RCEP negotiations

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS- II – International Relations

In News:

  • Australia is driving an exchange group of RCEP nations in order to persuade India to focus on the arrangement (Free Trade Agreement) by this year-end.

About RCEP:

  • Territorial Comprehensive Cooperation understanding – is a proposed facilitated commerce understanding between 10 individuals from ASEAN and its five FTA accomplices (China, India, Australia, Japan, New Zealand)
  • RCEP arrangement was officially propelled in 2012, whose part states together record for 3.4 billion individuals and around 40% of the world’s GDP.

Do you know?

Individuals from the Indian Industry are opposing RCEP because of the following concerns

  • Flooding of the market with Chinese merchandise affecting household makers
  • Absence of access to Indian administrations in the RCEP nations (Services is India’s solid region and can possibly take advantage of RCEP advertise)

Cybersecurity – Agent Smith

Part of: Mains GS III- Challenges to internal security through communication networks

In News:

  • Operator Smith is the most recent malware to crawl into android telephones.
  • This malware can supplant applications on android telephones with pernicious variants without the client’s information.
  • Starting at now Agent Smith is just invading cell phones with the expectation of hurling ads (abrupt ascent) for different applications.
  • In any case, once the malware has power over a mobile phone, it can do anything, including taking financial subtleties or other delicate information, obligated to its abuse.
  • It is evaluated to have just affected 25 million gadgets, Indian comprising about 60% of them.
  • Clients are in this manner exhorted against downloading outsider applications and keep their working framework refreshed.

Railway reforms

Part of: Mains GS III- Infrastructure: Railways

In News

  • The government is thinking about to begin the import of complete train sets from remote providers in the event that they consented to build up the mentor fabricating office in India.
  • Railroads would advance standard qualification criteria for impetus frameworks as was finished by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs that works the Metro Railway.

Do You Know?

  • Focus plans to corporatize creation units of Indian railroads like – Integral Coach Factory in Chennai (Largest such office on the planet), Modern Coach Factory in Rae Bareli, and Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala.
  • Corporatization is the way toward changing government resources into partnerships.
  • For this situation, the creation units of Indian Railways will be changed over into government-claimed organization
  • Focal points of corporatization: Managerial self-sufficiency, predominant operational proficiency, draw in ventures, acquire beginning of-the-craftsmanship innovation and fare capacity
  • Resistance to Corporatization: Opposition in terms of professional career associations because of expanded powerlessness of their occupations, considered as initial step of privatization which would build cost for customers

Himalayan conclave at Mussorie

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS II-  issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure

In News

  • Himalayan states assembled and made the accompanying requests to the middle
    • A different Union service to manage issues endemic to them
    • A green reward in acknowledgment of their commitment to condition preservation.
  • Justification behind such requests
    • The greater part of the nation’s streams start in the Himalayan states and in this manner they need to assume huge job in water protection endeavors
    • Additionally, a huge piece of their property fell into eco-touchy zones where formative exercises are seriously limited
    • A green reward is in this way expected to remuneration for their burdens

Do You Know?

  • 11 Himalayan conditions of India are – Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur
  • Service of Jal Shakti was framed in May 2019 in order to comprehensively resolve water emergency
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) to be begun from September 2019 is a period bound, strategic water preservation battle.
  • JSA will concentrate on five perspectives –
    • Water protection and water gathering
    • Remodel of customary and other water bodies
    • Reuse of water and energizing of structures
    • watershed advancement, and
    • Concentrated afforestation

Hurdles in Colistin ban

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III-  Economics of animal-rearing. 

In News

  • Kerala is equipping to execute the Union Ministry’s restriction on Colistin and its definitions, for nourishment creating animals, poultry, water cultivating and creature feed supplements.
  • Be that as it may, the real usage of the boycott is laden with difficulties because of the absence of any control on the imports of Colistin from China

Do you know?

  • Colistin is an important, final retreat anti-microbial that spares lives in basic consideration units.
  • Off-late there has been ascending in patients who have displayed protection from this medication (insufficient against pathogens)
  • Colistin is profoundly abused in the poultry industry as a development advertiser which is one of the purposes behind expanding anti-toxin obstruction in India
  • The poultry advertises in expanding in India because of poultry incorporation, a sort of agreement cultivating wherein integrators supply chicks, feed, veterinary guide, drug and different contributions to ranchers and afterward repurchase the fowls following five weeks.

(MAINS FOCUS)


SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

TOPIC: General Studies 3

  • Awareness in the fields of IT
  • Science and technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Ban or regulate cryptocurrency?

Context

  • A between ecclesiastical board of trustees (IMC) that was set up to evaluate the reasonability of virtual monetary forms has suggested that India should boycott private digital currencies, for example, Bitcoin.

Concerns:

  • Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said the legislature doesn’t think of them as lawful delicate.
  • The Reserve Bank of India has more than once cautioned the general population of the dangers related to managing cryptographic forms of money.  
  • There have been instances of buyers being cheated, remembering for India.

What are virtual monetary standards?

  • A virtual cash is a computerized portrayal of significant worth that can be carefully exchanged and works as
    • a mechanism of trade, or potentially
    • a unit of record, or potentially
    • a store of significant worth,
  • Be that as it may, dissimilar to fiat money like the rupee, it isn’t legitimate delicate and doesn’t have the sponsorship of an administration.
  • A digital money is a subset of virtual monetary forms, and is decentralized, and secured by cryptography.
  • There are square chains that are online registers and through these online registers, individuals can really purchase these monetary standards and mine the monetary forms and use them as the instrument of trade. There are around 9-10 digital forms of money on the planet at this moment.
  • Bitcoins are the biggest digital money on the planet since they are PC created monetary forms and the codes are totally mystery, so no one bosses it.
  • Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple, Ethereum, PPcoin, Dogecoin, Coinye, Namecoin and so forth are a portion of the instances of digital forms of money.

Significant terms identified with digital money:

Disseminated Ledger Technologies

  • DLT alludes to advancements that include the utilization of autonomous PCs (likewise alluded to as hubs) to record, share, and synchronize exchanges in their separate electronic records. Every single virtual cash use DLT.

Blockchain technology

  • It is a particular sort of DLT that came to noticeable quality after Bitcoin, cryptographic money that pre-owned it, got well known.
  • Digital currencies, for example, Bitcoin use codes to scramble exchanges and stack them up in squares, making Blockchains.
  • It is the utilization of codes that separates digital forms of money from other virtual monetary forms

Transactions

  • An exchange of assets between two advanced wallets is known as an exchange. That exchange gets submitted to an open record and anticipates affirmation.

Mining

  • In straightforward terms, mining is the way toward affirming exchanges and adding them to an open record. So as to add an exchange to the record, the “excavator” must take care of an inexorably mind-boggling computational issue (like a scientific riddle).

Advantages of digital forms of money

  • Proprietorship: Cryptocurrencies hold the guarantee of making it simpler to move reserves legitimately between two gatherings in exchange, without the requirement for a confided in outsider, for example, a bank or Visa organization
  • Low exchange expense: Fund moves are finished with insignificant preparing charges, enabling clients to keep away from the precarious charges charged by most banks and budgetary establishments for wire moves.
  • Character Protection: Paying with credit/check cards requires submitting touchy financial data that could be taken or bargained. Cryptographic money can be sent straightforwardly to a beneficiary with no data other than the aggregate sum you need to send.
  • Hazard free for dealers: Payments utilizing Cryptocurrency can’t be switched, which implies vendors don’t need to stress over halted installments. The blockchain makes it hard for you to be swindled.

Demerits of Cryptocurrency

  • Openness: Since digital money mining and exchanges can just occur on organizing, uneducated individuals will think that it’s hard to comprehend the working instrument. Likewise, provincial territories that don’t approach the web won’t have the option to perform cryptographic money exchanges.
  • Danger of hacking: utilizing bitcoins, giving an information structure to this record is presented to a restricted risk from programmers and can be replicated over all PCs running Bitcoin programming
  • Unpredictability: Cryptocurrency trade rates can shift significantly, which implies the sum you pay or get one day could be uncontrollably unique following day.

What is the IMC’s view on DLT and cryptographic forms of money?

The principal thing to comprehend is that the IMC perceives the capability of DLT and Blockchain.

  • The IMC acknowledges that globally, the utilization of DLT is being investigated in the regions of exchange account, contract credit applications, computerized character the board or KYC prerequisites, cross-fringe subsidize moves and clearing and settlement frameworks. 
  • To that degree, it prescribes the Department of Economic Affairs (inside the Finance Ministry) to take important measures to encourage the utilization of DLT in the whole money related field in the wake of recognizing its employments.
  • The IMC likewise prescribes that controllers — RBI, SEBI, IRDA, PFRDA, and IBBI — investigate advancing fitting guidelines for the advancement of DLT in their individual territories.
  • The IMC’s view is that it “would be prudent to have a receptive outlook in regards to the presentation of an authority computerized money in India”.
  • It noticed that the RBI Act has the empowering arrangements to allow the focal government to affirm a “National Bank Digital Currency” (CBDC) as legitimate delicate in India.

Second, scaling up such a money framework over an enormous populace would require devastating degrees of vitality assets. Monetary forms, for example, Bitcoin require humongous preparing power.  

  • As per a report by the Bank of International Settlement, Bitcoin handling as of now utilizes as a lot of vitality as is utilized by Switzerland; it called this an ecological calamity.

Third, the IMC is concerned that if private cryptographic forms of money are permitted to work as lawful delicate, the RBI would lose power over the financial arrangement and budgetary soundness, as it would not have the option to keep a tab on the cash supply in the economy

Fourth, the namelessness of private computerized monetary forms make them helpless against illegal tax avoidance and use in psychological oppressor financing exercises while making law requirement troublesome.

Fifth, there is no complaint redressal instrument in such a framework, as all exchanges are irreversible.

The between ecclesiastical panel trusts it is, venturing to such an extreme as to draft a law that orders a fine and detainment of as long as 10 years for the offenses of mining, creating, holding, selling, managing in, moving, discarding, or giving digital forms of money.

Conclusion:

  • An out and out prohibition on cryptographic money may not be a smart thought. On the off chance that new money is mainstream, it is shrewd to observe it, acknowledge the coming of innovation, perceive the ascent in prevalence of digital currency and afterward present defend, measures and administrative structure by which individuals don’t feel that they ought to have something to fall back on.
  • The administration will consider chances to be incomes as the huge number of individuals have made increases through digital currency.

Connecting the dots:

  • Cryptographic forms of money will undoubtedly bomb as a vehicle of trade for its theoretical nature and advanced presence. Remark.
  • What are cryptocurrencies? what are the dangers related to cryptocurrency? Discuss India’s remain on cryptographic forms of money.

SECURITY/BORDER MANAGEMENT

TOPIC: General Studies 3

  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Security challenges and their management in border areas

Army’s first Integrated Battle Groups

Context:

  • The new idea of Integrated Battle Groups (IBGs) which the Army intends to make as a component of by and large power change is near execution,

Increasingly about Integrated Battle Groups (IBGs):

  • IBGs are detachment measured, lithe, independent battle developments, which can quickly dispatch strikes against enemy if there should be an occurrence of threats.
  • IBG would be customized dependent on Threat, Terrain and Task and assets will be dispensed dependent on the three Ts.
  • The IBGs will likewise be cautious and hostile.
  • While the hostile IBGs would rapidly prepare and make the push into the hostile area for strikes
  • Protective IBGs would hold ground at defenseless focuses or where adversary activity is normal.
  • The idea of IBGs has just been test-had relations with 9 Corps. 
  • They will have the option to activate inside 12-48 hrs dependent on the area
  • They should be light so they will be low on coordinations,
  • An order is the biggest static development of the Army spread over a characterized geology, a corps is the biggest portable arrangement. Normally every corp has around three units.
  • The thought is to rearrange them into IBGs which are detachment measured units however have all the fundamental components like infantry, protected, cannons and air safeguard implanted together dependent on the three Ts
  • An IBG working in a desert should be established uniquely in contrast to an IBG working in the mountains.

Armed force Chief Gen Bipin Rawat has started four significant examinations to embrace generally speaking change of the power.

Point: The point is an all-encompassing mix to improve the operational and useful productivity, enhance spending use, encourage power modernization and address yearnings.

  1. Rebuilding of Army Headquarters
  2. Power rebuilding which incorporates the formation of Integrated Battle Groups (IBG)
  3. The framework audit of officials and
  4. Audit of the terms and states of Junior Commissioned Officers and Other Ranks

Conclusion

  • The general change will likewise observe a decrease in the size of the 1.3 million Army
  • After the Parliament assault, the Indian military embraced gigantic activation yet the arrangements which were somewhere inside took a long time to assemble losing the component of shock.
  • IBG Groups to be organized by end of one month from now

Connecting the dots:

  • What as you would like to think ought to be the choice standard in basic associations like protection? Basically assess.
  • Do you imagine that the Integrated fight bunches fills the need in general change of the power? Basically investigate.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Which of the following countries are part of RCEP negotiations

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. China
  2. USA 
  3. Japan
  4. Singapore
  5. South Korea

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 1,2,3 and 4 only
  3. 1,3,4 and 5 only
  4. 1,3 and 4 only

Q.2) Agent Smith recently seen in news is related to which of the following?

  1. Espionage
  2. Humanoid robot
  3. Mobile malware
  4. AI application for Crime reporting

Q.3) Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Integral Coach Factory in Chennai is the largest coach making facility in the world
  2. Metro Railway comes under Ministry of Road Transport and Highways

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4) Arrange the following cities from South to North?

  1. Chennai
  2. Rae Bareli
  3. Varanasi
  4. Kapurthala
  5. Patiala

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1-2-3-4-5
  2. 1-3-2-4-5
  3. 1-3-2-5-4
  4. 1-2-3-5-4

Q.5) Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. Ministry of Jal Shakti was formed by merging Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry of Drinking water and sanitation
  2. Water is under the concurrent list of Indian Constitution

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


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