R Programming Language

R is basically a programming language that combines standard programming capabilities with statistical analysis.   This is a powerful language used widely for data analysis and statistical computing.  This was originally developed by statisticians as an open-source alternative to expensive suites of statistical software like SAS and MATLAB. It is liked as Excel, able to execute sophisticated analyses and produce publication-quality graphs and tables. 

This language was created by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of  Auckland, New Zealand. R is named after the first names of the creators. The project was conceived in 1992 and  a stable  version release in 2000.  R is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. R language is freely available under the GNU General Public License and widely used among statisticians and data miners.

 R Programming is free and open-source meaning anyone can examine the source code. This helps  everyone  to  fix bugs and add features without help of vendor.  R can be considered as a computer program as well as a statistical programming language. The R programs will work on Windows, Macintosh or Linux.

The source code for the R software environment is written primarily in C, R and Fortran. R and its libraries implement a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques. This includes   linear and nonlinear modeling, classical statistical tests, time-series analysis, classification, clustering, and others.  R is easily extensible through functions and extensions.  Many of R’s standard functions are written in R itself, which makes it easy for users to follow the algorithmic choices made.

R Programming allows to integrate with other languages (C/C++, Java, Python) and enables to communicate with many data sources like Excel, Access, SAS, Stata, SPSS, Minitab  etc.

For computationally intensive tasks, CC++ and Fortran code can be linked and called at run time. Advanced users can write C, C++, Java.NET or Python code to manipulate R objects directly. R has stronger object-oriented programming facilities than most statistical computing languages.

R is very flexible and can be used to carry out unusual or non-standard procedures and is quick to adopt new procedures and innovations. It has libraries for almost everything that has been tried with other languages. It also has excellent graphics with a wide range of possibilities.

Another  strength of R is static graphics, which can produce publication-quality graphs, including mathematical symbols.  Dynamic and interactive graphics are available through additional packages. Rd package of R  provides  LaTeX like documentation format which is used to supply comprehensive documentation. Commonly used graphical Integrated Development Environment  for R is R Studio.

Many organizations are using  R programming extensively. Facebook  uses R for analyzing the Face book status updates, its social network graph, and for predicting colleague interactions. Ford Motor Company  uses  R for statistical analysis and data-driven decision support. Google  uses R to calculate ROI on advertising campaigns, to predict economic activity, to analyze effectiveness of advertisement  and to improve the efficiency of online advertising. In Foursquare , R is important part of the technology stack behind their famed recommendation engine.  Statisticians at John Deere use R for time series modeling and geospatial analysis in a reliable and reproducible way. These  results are then integrated with Excel and SAP. Insurance giant Lloyd’s uses R for creating  motion charts for providing  analysis to investors. Microsoft  uses R  in their video gaming brand  Xbox   for matchmaking service . They also use R  as a statistical engine in their  Azure machine language  framework. Mozilla, the foundation behind the Firefox web browser uses R to visualize Web activity.  R is used in the news cycle at The New York Times to crunch data and prepare graphics before they go to print or online. Thomas Cook , a Tours and Travel company  uses R for Prediction and fuzzy Logic to automate price settings of their last-minute offers.  National Weather Service   provides weather forecasts and warnings  to US Government uses R  to generate graphics for flood forecasting.  R is part of Twitter’s Data Science toolbox for sophisticated statistical modeling and is used to monitor the user experience on the site. The fourth largest bank in Australia ANZ Bank use R for its credit risk  modeling and analysis.  Uber , the transportation company is  using R  for  their statistical analysis.  Airbnb  a hospitality service  company  uses R  for  Scale data science.

In a recent survey among who are practicing Python in various organisations, 98.23 % mentioned that  the expertise  on R programming was acquired by studying with help of book along with constant practice.  Of this, 89.72 % mentioned that the Book authored by Dr. Jeeva Jose “ Beginner’s Guide for Data Analysis using R Programming “ was used to study   R programming    as a tool  in statistics for Data Analysis .

Created by: Mukul Seth