IAS Coaching Current Affairs 05-07-2019

Highlights |IAS Current Affairs 05-07-2019

Current Affairs and News (05-07-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and new for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Survey sets out blueprint for $5 trillion economy
  • Govt. can sell PSU land, reduce the majority stake to boost non-tax revenue: CEA
  • ‘Greying India must delay retirement’
  • Needed: a well-designed minimum wage system
  • Call to ease legal logjam for better contract enforcement
  • ‘Shift focus to water productivity’
  • India could host ‘Detroit’ of EVs
  • A scheme for farmers that have not reached most farmers
  • Not a bloodless option for India (Cyber Attacks)

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IAS Current Affairs and News Analysis 05-07-2019


Survey sets out blueprint for $5 trillion economy

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • The Economic Survey 2019 focusses on moving to an “ethical cycle” of reserve funds, ventures and fares to change India into a $5 trillion economy in the following five years.
  • As indicated by the review, India’s GDP is estimated to grow by 7% in financial 2019-20, marginally higher than the 6.8% in 2018-19.

Virtuous and Vicious cycles of economy

  • At the point when the economy is in an upright cycle, venture, profitability development, work creation, request, and fares feed into one another and empower creature spirits in the economy to flourish.
  • Interestingly, when the economy is in an endless loop, control in these factors hose one another and in this manner hoses the creature spirits in the economy.

Investment led economy

  • Private speculation was a key driver for request, limit, work profitability, new innovation selection, and for work creation.
  • Venture by the private division can’t occur except if there is no swarming out on account of the administration.
  • Moving the economy into an ethical cycle would require the appropriation of specific practices and standards on information, legitimate changes and strategy assurance, and some small scale financial viewpoints, for example, boosting MSMEs and decreasing the expense of capital.

Fiscal glide path

There is accentuation on private venture in light of the fact that the administration had and would adhere to its financial solidification coast way. It has focused on a financial deficiency of 3.4% of GDP in 2019-20, and 3% each in the consequent two years.

On “Data”

  • The information of cultural intrigue is produced by the individuals, it very well may be made as an open decent inside the legitimate structure of information protection.
  • The administration must mediate in making information as an open decent, particularly of poor people and in social areas.
  • The Survey pointed out that information must be seen as an open decent and utilized in a coordinated manner to convey administrations.
  • The Survey discussed blending the unmistakable datasets held by the administration into a solitary dataset, which would produce “numerous advantages.”

On the MSME sector

  • The ‘overshadow’ firms (with under 100 specialists), represented over half of every sorted out firm in assembling by number.
  • In spite of this, their commitment to work was simply 14% and to efficiency an insignificant 8%.
  • Enormous firms, then again, are only 15% in number yet represent 75% business and near 90% of profitability.
  • Along these lines, there is a need to “unshackle” MSMEs and empower them to develop into bigger firms.

Employment and labor reform

  • Capital venture cultivates work creation since capital merchandise generation, innovative work, and supply chains additionally produce occupations.
  • The processing plants in States that have adaptable work markets are considerably more gainful than those in States with unbending laws. Consequently, there is a need of work changes.

Govt. can sell PSU land, reduce the majority stake to boost non-tax revenue: CEA

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • As indicated by Chief Economic Advisor, the legislature can sell land held by PSUs and possibly diminish its larger part stake in certain organizations to compensate for the noteworthy shortage in charge incomes.
  • The non-charge incomes have a noteworthy potential to extend, particularly on the grounds that huge numbers of the PSUs are perched on enormous pools of land which can be adapted.
  • There is likewise an open door for more noteworthy comes back from divestment. The administration could lessen its possessions in some PSUs to underneath the greater part stake of 51% of direct control.

‘Greying India must delay retirement’

Part of Prelims and mains GS II Social protection schemes GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • India may need to raise the retirement age as the nation sees a fast increment in the size of the older populace throughout the following two decades because of the backing off of the populace development rate, as per the Economic Survey 2018-19.
  • It gauges that the populace rate will become under 1% from 2021 to 2031 and under 0.5% from 2031 to 2041.
  • This is basically because of the fall in the all-out fruitfulness rate (TFR).
  • TFR is anticipated to decrease between 2021-2041 and fall underneath substitution level ripeness at 1.8 as right on time as 2021.

Replacement level fertility rate

The complete richness pace of 2.1 is known as the substitution level fruitfulness underneath which populaces start to decay. 

Replacement level fertility rate for India

  • For India, the powerful substitution level ripeness is somewhat higher than the ordinary benchmark because of the slanted sex proportion and is at 2.15-2.2.
  • The current TFR in 14 out of the 22 significant States is as of now underneath the powerful substitution level ripeness.
  • At the State level, southern States just as West Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh have underneath substitution level fruitfulness and will see TFR decay to 1.5-1.6 by 2021.
  • By 2031, all States are probably going to see underneath substitution level fruitfulness.

Change in demography

  • The working-age populace is required to see a huge increment prompting India’s statistic profit cresting around 2041 when the portion of those in the age gathering of 20-59 is relied upon to hit 59%.
  • The size of the old populace, 60 years or more, is relied upon to almost twofold from 8.6% in 2011 to 16% by 2041.
  • The populace size of those between 0-19 years, which is on the decrease, is probably going to drop from as high as 41% in 2011 to 25% by 2041.

New policy Challenges

  • Arrangements for wellbeing and mature age care
  • Access to retirement-related monetary administrations
  • Open annuity financing
  • Retirement age, and so on.

Suggestions 

  • Expanding the retirement age for the two people going ahead could be considered in accordance with the experience of different nations.
  • It would likewise help increment female work power cooperation in the more established age-gatherings.
  • Numerous nations, for example, the U.S., Germany, and France have just raised the retirement age to decrease the weight on annuity subsidizing.
  • Extra occupations should be made to keep pace with yearly increments in the working-age populace of 9.7 million during 2021-31 and 4.2 million during 2031-41.

Needed: a well-designed minimum wage system

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • According to the financial review, a well-structured and streamlined the lowest pay permitted by law framework is required to diminish wage disparity in the nation.
  • Right now, the lowest pay permitted by law framework, under the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, in India is perplexing, with 1,915 distinctive least wages characterized for various work classes crosswise over States.
  • As indicated by ILO, one in each three pay laborers in India isn’t secured by the lowest pay permitted by law.
  • For example, household laborers were secured under the lowest pay permitted by law laws in just 18 States and Union Territories.
  • While the law didn’t segregate among people, investigation of various wages indicated a predisposition.

An example of bias

Ladies command in the classification of local laborers while men overwhelm in the class of security watches. While both these occupations fall inside the class of untalented specialists, the lowest pay permitted by law rate for residential laborers inside a State is reliably lower than that for the lowest pay permitted by law rates for security monitors.

Recommendations of the survey

  • Least wages ought to be chosen the premise of abilities and split crosswise over land areas.
  • The administration is acquiring the Code on Wages Bill Parliament, the justification of least wages proposed by the Bill ought to be bolstered.
  • The administration ought to advise a “national floor the lowest pay permitted by law” crosswise over five locales, after which the States can fix their own base wages, however not lower than the floor wage.
  • This would bring consistency and make States similarly appealing from the perspective of work cost for speculation just as decrease trouble relocation.

Call to ease legal logjam for better contract enforcement

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • Agreement requirement remains the single greatest imperative to improve India’s Ease of Doing Business (EODB) positioning, which at present stands at 163 on the planet positioning.
  • Disregarding various activities to speed up and improve the agreement authorization system, monetary action was influenced by the long shadow of postponements and pendency over the lawful scene.

Recommendations 

  • As indicated by the financial overview, two key issues should be managed so as to make the legal executive increasingly effective;
  • Right off the bat, the courts must accomplish a 100% case leeway rate (CCR) so that there is zero collection to the current tendency.
  • Also, the build-up of cases effectively present in the framework must be evacuated.
  • It recommended improving the proficiency of the courts, expanding the number of working long stretches of courts, the foundation of Indian Courts and Tribunal Services, and organization of innovation in the legitimate framework.

Case clearance rate (CCR)

CCR is the proportion of the number of cases discarded in an offered year to the number of cases established in that year.


‘Shift focus to water productivity’

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

  • The Economic Survey 2018-19, regarding agriculture, suggested that the country should shift its focus from land productivity to irrigation water productivity and on devising policies to incentivize farmers to adopt efficient ways of water use.
  • This should become a national priority to avert a looming water crisis.
  • Agriculture remains the predominant occupation in terms of the number of people employed. Also, agriculture is dependent highly on water. So, the appropriate mechanism needs to be framed for the economical use of water among small and marginal farmers.

Government policies and Cropping pattern

  • The trimming design in India is exceptionally slanted towards crops that are water-escalated.
  • The motivating force structures like least help cost, vigorously financed power, water, and composts have assumed a critical job in the misalignment of harvest designs in the nation.
  • The water guzzlers, paddy and sugarcane, expend over 60% of water system water accessible in the nation, diminishing water accessibility for different yields.
  • States, for example, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh, which have high land profitability, will, in general, have low water system water efficiency, reflecting wasteful utilization of water and the need to re-adjust editing design.

India could host ‘Detroit’ of EVs

Part of Prelims and mains GS III Indian Economy

In news

As indicated by monetary study, with the correct approaches, it’s conceivable that one of India’s urban areas could turn into the ‘Detroit of electric vehicles’.

National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) and FAME

  • India has a “National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP)” set up to “accomplish deals” of 60-70 lakh units of electric vehicles (that incorporates transports, bikes, and autos) by 2020.
  • In 2015, the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric vehicles (FAME) plot was propelled to quick track the objectives of NEMMP.
  • Popularity India Phase II, with an accentuation on charge of open vehicle, was likewise propelled from April 1, 2019.

Global scenario

  • All-inclusive, the offers of electric vehicles have developed from a little more than 2,000 units sold in 2008 to more than 10 lakh in 2017.
  • The piece of the overall industry of electric autos is around 2% in China while it is around 39% in Norway.

In India

  • Electric bikes have been a significant piece of EV deals with offers of around 54,800 out of 2018.
  • Indian piece of the pie in electric vehicles is just 0.06%.
  • Uttar Pradesh beat the rundown of the States with the most noteworthy EV offers of 6,878 units in 2017-18.

Renewable energy in India

  • India’s appropriation of electric vehicles was a piece of its bigger push towards expanding the portion of sustainable power source and diminishing carbon dioxide discharges.
  • The portion of renewables (barring hydro over 25 MW) in absolute power age was around 10% in 2018-19 contrasted and around 6% in 2014-15.
  • India stands fourth in wind control, fifth in sun oriented power and fifth in sustainable power introduced limit.

(MAINS FOCUS)


NATIONAL

TOPIC: General studies 2

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

A scheme for farmers that have not reached most farmers

Introduction

PM-Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) was propelled in spending plan 2019 to improve ranch trouble. The plan’s unique target to enhance the monetary needs of the little and minor ranchers has been widened to incorporate every one of the classifications of horticultural landowners.

 Reasons for farm distress or agrarian crisis and the need for the scheme: 

  • Falling ranch earnings because of a decrease in worldwide costs
  • Low residential nourishment expansion
  • Divided land property
  • Expanding obligation, little and minimal ranchers, for the most part, assume praise from casual channels at usurious rates.
  • Rancher suicides

 Envisaged benefits of the scheme:  

  • Giving organized salary backing to the little and peripheral landholding ranchers for getting information sources, for example, seeds, composts, gear, work, and mechanical up-degree.
  • Ranchers will abstain from falling into obligation trap.

Features of the scheme: 

  • Yearly backing of Rs 6,000 to be given in three Rs 2000 portions each.
  • Completely supported by the Union Government.
  • Material from review impact from December 2018
  • Distribution of Rs 20,000 for the current money related year (2018-19) and Rs 75,000 crore in 2019-20.

Challenges for the scheme: 

  • Land records not satisfactorily digitized.
  • Execution issues
  • Financial space

Positive aspects of the scheme:

  • This help is far beyond all the current plans for the cultivating area.
  • Dish India inclusion; around 12 crore cultivating families to profit
  •  Guaranteed salary backing to the cultivating class will give a feeling of certainty.
  • Family is taken as a unit, henceforth in enormous joint families, the accumulated advantage might be bigger.

 Negative aspects of the scheme: 

  • Backing of Rs 500 for every family isn’t sufficient to mitigate ranch pay
  • Sharecroppers and landless horticultural workers won’t this advantage.
  • The money move isn’t connected to the size of the rancher’s property, dissimilar to
  • Telangana’s Rythu Bandhu plot, under which ranchers get ₹8,000 per annum for each section of land possessed.
  • Telangana’s RYTHU BANDHU plan and Odisha’s KALIA conspire offer more than PM-KISAN.
  • It would repeat consumption as it is difficult to move back. Additionally, it would add to the monetary shortfall.

Lacunae in implementation 

  • There are 125 million cultivating families, who establish the plan’s unique proposed recipients. Notwithstanding, at present, the rundown of recipients incorporates just 32% (40.27 million) of these family units.
  • A larger part of the proposed recipient families are yet to get even their first portion of ₹2,000.
  • Usage in specific States has been organized. U.P., for example, represents 33% of all-out recipient families. An aggregate of 17 States has gotten an unimportant portion of the principal portion, representing under 9%.

Way forward

  • For the scheme to be effective, PM-Kisan needs to be uniformly implemented across regions.
  • Tenants constitute 13.7% of farm households and incur the additional input cost of land rent. There is a strong case to include landless tenants and other poor families.
  • There is a need for the necessary link with the scale of production (farm size).
  • If income support is indeed the objective, the most deserving need to be given precedence.

Connecting the dots:

Critically examine the provisions and implementation of the PM-KISAN scheme.


NATIONAL

TOPIC: General studies 3

  • Difficulties in inner security through correspondence systems and cybersecurity
  • Security challenges and their administration in outskirt zones

Not a bloodless option for India (Cyber Attacks)

Introduction

  • As of late, the USA turned to Cyber strikes on Iran and kept away from the military reaction when its automaton was grounded by IRAN’s Army.
  • Such utilization of Cyber strikes has been named as Bloodless War. It is conjectured that the strikes focused on Iran’s military direction and frameworks, for example, those that control Iran’s rocket and rocket launchers.
  • Regardless of whether India can receive a comparative system against Terror assaults?

India’s strategy for response against terror attacks by Pakistan

In recent responses by India against terror strikes by Pakistan, implicit criteria of India’s approach has been observed. The criteria are pre-emption, non-military nature, and deterrence.

 Justifications of these criteria 

  • Preemption – It enables India to legitimize any activity on International Forums. It is a special case of Article 2(4) of the UN Charter and is identified with Self-resistance.
  • Non – military – the operational point has never been to focus on the Pakistani individuals or even the Pakistani military
  • Discouragement – Any activity should prompt significant harm on the foe in order to make prevention.

Can India conduct retaliatory Cyber strikes like the USA? How would India Justify such an act on International Forums?

  • The lead of U.S. digital order was gone for the Iranian foundation, explicitly focusing on its army bases.
  • On the off chance that India directs a digital negative mark against Pakistan’s military order or frameworks, it will be named as one against Pakistan and not the psychological militants. This won’t be in accordance with the criteria of Pre-emption and non-military reaction.
  • Further, a digital negative mark against Pakistan will call for counter-digital strikes.
  • Rather than the planned prevention, it will probably prompt a heightening. In this manner, it has been contended that a digital assault isn’t a possibility for India starting now.

Conclusion

  • The vast majority of the dread gatherings rely on PCs, systems and the Internet.
  • Psychological militant bunches utilize the Internet for purposeful publicity. Therefore India’s Cyber-assaults ought to be focused against them.
  • Further, the capacity of the Indian military in leading such activity is as yet not Known. Anyway, this mystery will make a component of shock if India picks such a retaliatory alternative.

Connecting the dots:

Digital assaults, another method for fighting. Break down the expenses and open doors for India.


(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note:  Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by Wahtaftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Ease of doing business index is given by,

  1. World economic forum
  2. World Bank
  3. International Monetary Fund  
  4. World Trade Organization

Q.2) Consider the following statements

  1. Government investment was a key driver for demand, capacity, labor productivity, new technology adoption, and for job creation.
  2. Investment by the private sector cannot happen unless there is no crowding out because of the government.

Select the incorrect statements

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements about the total fertility rate in India,

  1. The current TFR in 14 out of the 22 major States is already below the effective replacement level fertility.
  2. At the State level, southern States as well as West Bengal, Punjab, Maharashtra and Himachal Pradesh have below replacement level fertility and will see TFR decline to 1.5-1.6 by 2021. 
  3. By 2031, all States are likely to see below replacement level fertility.

Select the correct statements

  1. 1 and 2 Only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Q.4) Consider the following statements

  1. The minimum wage system in India is governed by the Minimum Wages Act, 1948,
  2. Domestic workers are not covered under minimum wage laws in any of the States and Union Territories.

Select the correct statements

  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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