UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (02-08-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 02-08-2019

Current Affairs and News (02-08-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Triple Talaq Act
  • National Medical Commission(NMC)
  • Chimera
  • Indus Script
  • Micro- Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)
  • National Medical Commission(NMC)bill 2019

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (02-08-2019)

Triple Talaq Act

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS- I – Indian Society

In News

  • President has given his consent to the Triple Talaq Bill that makes giving moment oral triple talaq a criminal offense with arrangements of a prison term as long as three years.
  • The triple talaq law or the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights On Marriage) Act, 2019, has happened reflectively from September 19, 2018.
  • The law currently enables a cop to capture the wrongdoer without requiring a warrant
  • Be that as it may, to check abuse, the police take cognizance just if the grievance is documented by the distressed lady or any of her connection by blood or marriage.
  • The Bill additionally accommodates bail by an officer however simply in the wake of hearing the distressed lady
  • The distressed lady is qualified for request an upkeep for her and her needy youngsters under the Act

Do you know?

  • In August 2017 the Supreme Court, by a larger part of 3:2, put aside the act of triple talaq in Shyara Bano Case.
  • The judgment held triple talaq to be unlawful under Article 14 read with Article 13(1) and reasoned that the training isn’t fundamental to the act of Islam(Article 25)
  • The act of “triple talaq” was annulled in 38 nations including Muslim-dominant part nations of Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Afghanistan, and Pakistan

National Medical Commission(NMC)

Part of: Mains GS II – Issues relating to the development and management of Health.

In News

  • National Medical Commission Bill was passed by Rajya Sabha.
  • The bill proposes to annul Indian Medical Council Act, set up an NMC supplanting MCI
  • Proposed NMC will endorse medicinal universities, lead MBBS assessments, direct course charges
  • The bill has an arrangement for the constitution of 4 self-ruling sheets. These sheets will care for issues identified with UG instruction, PG training, appraisal and accreditation of organizations, enrollment of experts.
  • The bill proposes a typical last year MBBS test, the National Exit Test (NEXT), before an individual beginning rehearsing medication and for looking for admission to post-graduate medicinal courses.
  • The NMC will manage charges for half of the seats in therapeutic schools at both MBBS and postgraduate level in all private and considered colleges.
  • The bill engages the legislature can concede permit to Community Health Providers (CHPs) to rehearse present-day drug for essential and preventive social insurance,
  • This implies CHPs (by and by 2.5 lakh) would then be able to endorse restricted allopathic meds – a power which so far had distinctly by the individuals who hold an MBBS degree.

Chimera

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III- Science & Technology

  • Figment is a life form containing a blend of hereditarily various tissues, shaped by procedures, for example, combination of early incipient organisms, joining,

In News

  • The Japanese government has permitted to lead human-creature undeveloped organism tests, with a definitive objective of some time or another making organs to be transplanted into people
  • The front line — however disputable — investigate includes embedding altered creature incipient organisms with human “incited pluripotent stem” (iPS) cells that can be persuaded into shaping the structure squares of any piece of the body
  • The examination includes creating creature undeveloped organisms — mice, rodents or pigs — that come up short on a specific organ, for example, a pancreas.
  • The adjusted incipient organisms are then embedded with human iPS cells that can develop into the missing pancreas.
  • The undeveloped organisms would be transplanted into bellies where they could hypothetically be conveyed to term with a working human pancreas.

Indus Script

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS I- Indian Culture

In News

  • Found from about 4,000 antiquated engraved articles, including seals, tablets, ivory poles, ceramics shards, and so on., the Indus engravings are one of the most baffling heritages of the Indus Valley development
  • They have not been deciphered because of the nonattendance of bilingual writings, outrageous curtness of the engravings, and numbness about the language(s) encoded by Indus content.
  • Another exploration says that a larger part of these engravings were composed logographically (by utilizing word signs) and not by utilizing phonograms (discourse sounds units)
  • The recorded seals and tablets were utilized in some authoritative activity that controlled the business exchanges pervasive in the exchange clever settlements of the old Indus Valley Civilisation.
  • The examination calls attention to that the engravings can be contrasted with the organized messages found on stamps, coupons, tokens and cash coins of present-day times.
https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/il8bbi/article28787526.ece/ALTERNATES/FREE_460/2th-HinduFig

(MAINS FOCUS)


ECONOMY

Topic:

General Studies 2:

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

General Studies 3:

  • Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development,and employment.
  • Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

Micro- Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)

Context:

  • The low pace of greenfield speculation could reflect poor interest for credit and supply-side issues among NBFCs

What are MSMEs

  • Miniaturized scale Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are little estimated elements, characterized by their size of venture.
  • They are contributing fundamentally to yield, business trade and so on in the economy.
  • They play out a basic job in the economy by giving work to an enormous number of untalented and semi-talented individuals, adding to sends out, raising assembling division generation and stretching out help to greater ventures by providing crude material, fundamental products, completed parts and segments, and so on.

How MSMEs are classified?

The MSMEs are ordered as far as venture made in plant and hardware on the off chance that they are working in the assembling part and interest in gear for administration segment organizations.

In spite of the fact that the essential duty of advancement and improvement of MSMEs is of the State Governments, the inside has passed an Act in 2006 to enable the part and furthermore has shaped a (Ministry of MSMEs).

Manufacturing sector
EnterprisesInvestment in plant and hardware
Miniaturized scale EnterprisesDoes not surpass twenty-five lakh rupees
Little EnterprisesMore than twenty-five lakh rupees, however, doesn’t surpass five crore rupees
Medium EnterprisesMore than five crore rupees but does not exceed ten crore rupees
Service sector
EnterprisesInvestment in equipment
Micro EnterprisesDoes not exceed ten lakh rupees:
Small EnterprisesMore than ten lakh rupees but does not exceed two crore rupees
Medium EnterprisesMore than two crore rupees but does not exceed five crore rupees

New Classification:

  • A smaller-scale endeavor will be characterized as a unit where the yearly turnover doesn’t surpass five crore rupees;
  • A little venture will be characterized as a unit where the yearly turnover is in excess of five crore rupees yet doesn’t surpass Rs 75 crore;
  • A medium undertaking will be characterized as a unit where the yearly turnover is in excess of 75 crore rupees yet doesn’t surpass Rs 250 crore.
  • Moreover, the Central Government may, by warning, differ turnover limits, which will not surpass thrice the breaking points determined in Section 7 of the MSMED Act.

Organizational structure

  • The essential duty of advancement and improvement of MSMEs is of the State Governments
  • The job of the Ministry of MSME and its associations is to help the States in their endeavors to support enterprise, business and job openings and improve the intensity of MSMEs
  • The Ministry of MSME comprises of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Division, Agro and Rural Industry (ARI) Division, Integrated Finance (IF) Wing and Data Analytics and Technical Coordination (DATC) Wing, the Office of the Development Commissioner (DCMSME) and other appended associations.

What is the potential of India’s MSME sector?

  • Miniaturized scale, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) assume a fundamental job in the development of the Indian economy by contributing 45% of mechanical yield, 40% of fares.
  • It utilizes 60 million individuals, makes 1.3 million occupations consistently and delivers in excess of 8000 quality items for the Indian and global markets.
  • There are around 30 million MSME Units in India and 12 million people are relied upon to join the workforce in the following 3 years.

Importance of MSME in India:

  • It makes enormous scale work: Enterprises that are comprehensive in this part require low money to fire up a new business. In addition, it makes an immense open door for jobless individuals to profit. India delivers about 1.2 million alumni for every year out of which all outnumber of architects is around 0.8 million. There is no economy so far that could give that enormous number of freshers in a single year as it were. MSME is the help of the crisp ability in India.
  • Financial steadiness regarding Growth and influence Exports: It is the most huge driver in India adding to the tune of 8% to GDP. Considering the commitment of MSME to assembling, fares, and business, different parts are likewise profiting by it. These days, MNCs are purchasing semi-completed, and assistant items from little endeavors,
  • Energizes Inclusive Growth: The comprehensive development is at the highest point of the plan of Ministry for Medium, and little and Medium-sized endeavors for quite a while. Then again, neediness and hardship are an obstruction to the improvement of India. Additionally, it incorporates underestimated segments of a general public which is a key test lying before the Ministry of MSME.
  • Modest Labor and least overhead: While in the enormous scale associations, one of the fundamental tests is to hold the human asset through a successful human asset the board proficient chief. In any case, with regards to MSME, the prerequisite of work is less and it needn’t bother with a profoundly talented worker. In this manner, the aberrant costs brought about by the proprietor is additionally low.
  • Basic Management Structure for Enterprises: MSME can begin with restricted assets inside the control of the proprietor. From this basic leadership gets simple and effective. Despite what might be expected, an enormous enterprise requires a master for each departmental working as it has a complex hierarchical structure. Though a little endeavor doesn’t have to procure an outside authority for its administration. The proprietor can oversee himself. Subsequently, it could run without any help.
  • The fundamental job in the crucial “Make in India”: The marked activity by the Prime Minister of India “Make in India” has been made simple with MSME. It is taken as a spine in making this fantasy a plausibility. Likewise, the administration has guided the budgetary organization to loan more credit to endeavors in the MSME part.

The list of the problems that are faced by existing/new companies in SME sector are as under:

  • Nonappearance of sufficient and convenient financial money
  • Restricted capital and information
  • Non-accessibility of appropriate innovation
  • Low creation limit
  • Inadequate promoting technique
  • Imperatives on modernisation and developments
  • Non-accessibility of talented work at reasonable expense
  • Catch up with different government offices to determine issues because of the absence of labor and information and so forth

The problem of low investment in MSMEs and what we can do

 Structural problems retarding growth in pre-existing MSMEs:

  • The Economic review is increasingly about the basic issues hindering development in previous MSMEs as opposed to the quick issue, which is the absence of crisp speculation.
  • The part 3 of Economic review gives proof that organizations in India, regardless of whether they begin above or underneath the 100 specialist line, don’t develop as a lot after some time as they do somewhere else due to these confinements
  • One of the numerous reasons why the summed up dread of being laid off from a vocation is especially serious in India is on the grounds that, up to this point, benefits under the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) frequently passed on with the activity, since the EPFO number was not versatile.

An age-related sunset clause to downsizing flexibility (as recommended by the ES) could switch off investment in MSME:

  • A beginning underneath the cutting back limit, in spite of the scale economies of being greater, could be a result of high drawback hazard to request projections, which would differ by segment.  
  • At that point, there is additionally a spatial measurement of the issue. Venture inside agglomerations is less dangerous than remain solitary units in a common area
  • Commonplace MSME new businesses might be particularly delicate to age-related dusk to scaling back adaptability.
  • there are different limits that a little, youthful firm may not wish to cross. The products and enterprise charge (GST) has included another edge, characterized as far as turnover, beneath which consistency is less difficult.
  • Every one of these edges would need to convey age-related nightfall provisos for the motivating force to work, however, the no doubt effect is disheartening MSME new businesses through and through.

On the supply of credit:

 Since banks need to now move in where NBFCs dread to step, there could be process delays coming about because of challenges in due determination, particularly for areas spatially expelled from major urban focuses.

Steps taken by the Government:

  • Credit Guarantee Trust Fund for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE): Ministry of MSME and Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), built up a Trust named Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE) to execute Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme for Micro and Small Enterprises and give money related help to MSMEs.
  • A Scheme for Promoting Innovation, Rural Industry and Entrepreneurship (ASPIRE): It plans to set up a system of innovation focuses, brooding focuses to quicken business and furthermore to advance new companies for development and enterprise in the rustic and farming based industry
  • Smaller-scale and Small Enterprises Cluster Development (MSE-CDP): It plans to help the supportability and development of MSEs by tending to basic issues, for example, improvement of innovation, aptitudes, and quality, showcase get to, access to capital, and so forth.
  • National Manufacturing Competitiveness Program: The goal is to create worldwide aggressiveness among Indian MSMEs. This program focuses on upgrading the whole worth chain of the MSME area.
  • SFURTI-SI (Scheme of Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries, Credit Guarantee Scheme): The plan expects to compose the conventional ventures and craftsmen into bunches to make them aggressive and offer help for their long haul supportability and economy of scale
  • Innovation Center Systems Program (TCSP): Under this program, innovation focuses have been created for giving specialized training and backing to MSMEs
  • MUDRA (Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Ltd.): The foundation of the MUDRA (Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Ltd.) bank under the Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana has been a significant activity. The Bank gives credits for working capital and extra necessities to pay creating independent venture movement in assembling, handling, administrations or exchanging.
  • Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme (CLCSS): CLCSS targets encouraging innovation up-gradation of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) by giving 15% capital appropriation (restricted to most extreme Rs.15 lakhs) for acquisition of Plant and Machinery.
  • Leader’s Employment Generation Program (PMEGP): The significant target is to create business openings in rustic just as urban regions of the nation through setting up of new independent work adventures/ventures/miniaturized scale undertakings.
  • Udyog Aadhaar Memorandum (UAM): It is a basic one-page enlistment structure planned for backing out enrollment process.
  • MSME SAMADHAAN: The Ministry of MSME propelled an entryway samadhaan.msme.gov.in. to encourages MSEs to document their deferred installments related protests on the web.
  • Market help Scheme: It plans to help MSMEs to take part in local and worldwide presentations/exchange fairs and so on.

Conclusion:

  • MSME is the foundation of the Indian economy. This division has demonstrated the instrumental in the development of the country, influence trades, making immense work open doors for the incompetent, crisp alumni, and the underemployed.
  • It likewise stretched out the chances to banks for giving more credit to ventures to MSME Sector.
  • The legislature should take the uncommon consideration by tending to the significance of MSME as far as giving increasingly more MSME Registration favorable circumstances by executing better guidelines and empower monetary foundations to loan more credit at less financing cost for supportability of this segment.

Connecting the dots:

  1. Investigate the difficulties that make Indian assembling less focused internationally? In what capacity would India be able to guarantee a more prominent offer in worldwide GDP from assembling?
  2. Do you think the miniaturized scale, little and medium businesses hold the way into India’s modern development? Inspect.

POLITY

TOPIC: General Studies 2

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

National Medical Commission(NMC)bill 2019

Context:

  • The National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill, 2019 has been passed by Rajya Sabha on August 1, 2019, even as several specialists are fighting crosswise over India. The Bill is supplanting the Medical Council of India (MCI) with National Medical Commission.

National Medical commission bill 2019

  • Lok Sabha, the focal government has made a crisp offered to supplant the questionable Indian Medical Council (IMC) with a National Medical Commission (NMC) to direct medicinal training and practices in India.
  • While the Medical Council of India (MCI) was a self-ruling body with two-third of its individuals (160 or more) being straightforwardly chosen by the therapeutic clique, the upgraded one would have 25 individuals with no legitimately chosen part.

What does the Bill provide?

The National Medical Commission Bill of 2019 proposes to have four independent sheets to deal with its various capacities:

(i) Under-Graduate Medical Education Board to set guidelines and direct restorative instruction at undergrad level

(ii) Post-Graduate Medical Education Board to set guidelines and direct restorative instruction at postgraduate level

(iii) Medical Assessment and Rating Board for examinations and rating of medicinal organizations and

(iv) Ethics and Medical Registration Board to manage and advance proficient direct and restorative morals and furthermore keep up national registers of (an) authorized therapeutic professionals and (b) Community Health Providers (CHPs).

  • With respect to confirmations and authorizing, the Bill accommodates a National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test (NEET) for admission to all undergrad and post-graduate “super-forte” therapeutic instruction, while accommodating another, National Exit Test (NEXT) for giving “permit” to practice and admission to postgraduate “expansive strength courses”.
  • The Bill likewise proposes for the NMC to “outline rules for assurance of expense and different charges” for half of the seats in private therapeutic establishments and esteemed to be colleges.
  • Right now, state governments decide expenses for 85% of seats in such foundations and the rest are left for the administration.
  • Different forces of the NMC incorporate authorization to set up new medicinal universities, start post-graduate courses, increment the number of seats, acknowledgment of therapeutic capabilities in and outside India and so on

IMA’s four major concerns

  • The first is over the CHPs being permitted to rehearse present-day medication. The Bill doesn’t characterize what their identity is or what capabilities they hold but then they are to be offered licenses to the degree of 33% of the all outnumber of authorized therapeutic specialists in India
  • The second significant complaint is to the proposed National Exit Test (NEXT) for giving the two licenses for training (to the individuals who have just cleared the MBBS test) just as for admission to post-graduate “expansive claim to fame courses”
  • The third significant protest is to “outline rules” to decide expenses and every other charge for half of the seats in private restorative foundations and considered to be colleges (the MCI didn’t have such powers).
  • The fourth significant protest is about the power the Bill provides for the focal government to give arrangement and different mandates to the NMC and its self-ruling sheets which will be authoritative and last.

Six reasons why governments would like to regulate medical education:

  1. To guarantee that specialists are fittingly prepared and talented to address the overarching malady trouble
  2. To guarantee that medicinal alumni mirror a uniform standard of capability and aptitudes
  3. To guarantee that just those with essential information on science and bent for the calling get in
  4. To guarantee moral practice in light of a legitimate concern for the patients
  5. To make a domain that empowers advancement and research
  6. To check the destructive effect of the procedure of commercialization on values and degenerate practices.

Conclusion:

  • No law is great. It is reliant upon the individuals who translate and execute it. The government has, under this Bill, arrogated to itself an exceptional capacity to select individuals in the different arms of the proposed structure. The quality and trustworthiness of these individuals will at that point characterize the eventual fate of the wellbeing framework in India.

Connecting the dots:

  • Human services is a significant zone for improvement of the country and along these lines matters the nature of social insurance professionals. Fundamentally inspect the striking highlights of National Medical Commission Bill 2019.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements

  1. The Bill becomes an act only after the President has given assent to it
  2. The President can give assent or withhold assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill
  3. The enactment of ex-post-fact laws (having retrospective effect) is prohibited only on Criminal laws and Tax laws and not on civil laws.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements about National Medical Commission(NMC)

  1. NMC will replace the Medical Council of India
  2. NMC has the power to regulate the fees of 50% of seats in private medical colleges
  3. NMC is purely a Central body with no representation from States

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.3) Consider the following statements.

  1. Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body
  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state
  3. Recently the UK government has allowed researchers to implant human iPSCs into animal embryos with the aim to develop human organs

 Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2, and 3


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