UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (07-08-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 07-08-2019

Current Affairs and News (07-08-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Abortion
  • Consumer Protection Bill
  • Coal Plants and green norms
  • US says China manipulates Yuan
  • Consumer protection bill 2019

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 07-08-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (07-08-2019)

Abortion

Part of: Mains GS- I – Society – Women issues 

In News

  • The government has started the procedure for a between pastoral meeting on raising the incubation time frame for ending a pregnancy to 24 weeks, from 20 at present if there should arise an occurrence of wellbeing danger to the mother or hatchling.
  • The Supreme Court, in 2017, had declined to revise the Medical Termination Pregnancy (MTP)Act which restricts the end of pregnancy past 20 weeks, saying that the issue fell inside the administrative domain.
  • The revision in the MTP demonstration expects to give equivalent regenerative rights and furthermore an arrangement for unmarried females and widows to experience lawful premature birth.
  • By and by, the lady must look for a legitimate plan of action if the pregnancy has gone more than 20 weeks to end the pregnancy.
  • Because of moderate legal procedure, a pregnant lady can’t complete the fetus removal consequently driving her to rely upon unlawful specialist co-ops for end of undesirable pregnancies

Do you know?

  • An examination paper as of late distributed in The Lancet Global Health said a sum of 15.6 million premature births were completed in India in 2015. Of these, 11.5 million occurred outside wellbeing offices.
  • The Parliamentary panel on Woman’s wellbeing noticed that mindfulness about premature birth is exceptionally low and about 80% of ladies don’t have a clue about that fetus removal is legitimate in India
  • As per the service of wellbeing and family welfare, fetus removal passings comprise 8% of every maternal demise every year in India.

Consumer Protection Bill

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS II- Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

In News

  • The Consumer Protection Bill 2019, as of now passed by Lok Sabha, was affirmed in the Upper House and will supplant the Consumer Protection Act, 1986.
  • Point: To secure the interests of shoppers by building up experts for opportune and powerful organization and settlement of customers’ debate.
  • New Bill-Benefit to Consumers
  • By and by consumers just have a solitary purpose of access to equity, which is tedious. Extra quick official cures are proposed in the bill through the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA)
  • CCPA will be engaged to research, review, discount and force punishments. It will control matters identified with infringement of shopper rights, uncalled for exchange rehearses, and deluding commercials.
  • Impediment discipline to check misdirecting commercials and defilement of items
  • Item risk arrangement to deflect makers and specialist co-ops from conveying faulty items or insufficient administrations
  • The simplicity of moving toward Consumer Commission and Simplification of Adjudication process (Filing from the spot of living arrangement, E-documenting, Videoconferencing for hearing)
  • Extension for early transfer of cases through intervention (ADR component, Mediation cells to be joined to Consumer Forum)
  • Arrangement for rules for new-age shopper issues: internet business and direct selling
  • Arrangement for a legal claim for guaranteeing that privileges of purchasers are not encroached upon

Coal Plants and green norms

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III- Environmental Conservation

In News

  1. Current guidelines state that coal-terminated power plants need to guarantee that they diminish sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide discharges by executing proper innovation by 2022
  2. A report arranged by International Institute of Sustainable Development and the Council on Energy, Environment, and Water has demonstrated that actualizing clean innovation in coal-terminated power plants can cost at any rate ₹73,000 crore
  3. This could mean at least 10% climb in power bills for purchasers
  4. Despite the fact that the cost of retrofitting plants might be high, not doing so would mean around 300,000 to 320,000 unexpected losses and 5.1 crore clinic affirmation cases because of respiratory issues somewhere in the range of 2019 and 2030.

Do you know?

  1. India’s introduced power limit as of March 2019 is 194,000 MW.
  2. As per the Central Electricity Authority, 166 GW of limit requires retrofitting with pipe gas desulphurization (to meet sulfur oxide outflow standards) and 66 GW with changes or upgrades to diminish particulate issue emanations

(MAINS FOCUS)


ECONOMY

TOPIC: General studies 2 & 3

  • Important International institutions, agencies, and forums, their structure, mandate.
  • Indian Growth & Economy
  • Economic Developments

US says China manipulates Yuan

Context:

  • The US Treasury Department announced that China is a cash controller. The move came after the People’s Bank of China (PBOC), the national bank of China, enabled the yuan to all of a sudden devalue (or lose esteem) comparative with the dollar by 1.9 percent — one of the greatest single-day falls.

Concern:

  • The ongoing exchange war between the world’s two greatest economies was presently transforming into a money war too.

What is money’s swapping scale?

  • A conversion scale system is a way a country deals with its cash in the outside trade showcase. A swapping scale system is firmly identified with that nation’s money related arrangement.

Example:

  • From various perspectives, the swapping scale of your cash is the key cost in the economy. On the off chance that an Indian vehicle is worth Rs 10 lakh, at that point that is all the data we have to direct that exchange; we don’t need to ponder “what is the cost of a rupee?”. Be that as it may, in case we’re attempting to purchase a vehicle that was delivered in, state the US, we would require more data than simply its value (say, $15,000 in the US). This is on the grounds that purchasing the imported vehicle includes two exchanges: one, utilizing your rupees to purchase 15,000 dollars; two, utilizing these dollars to purchase the vehicle.
  • It regularly decides the reasonableness of purchasing or selling universally. In this way, if the rupee is at 70 to a dollar, the vehicle might be moderate, yet not so at 100 to a dollar.
  • There is a flip side to this image. While a more grounded rupee (that is 70/$, rather than 100/$) is better for you as a purchaser, it is more regrettable for you on the off chance that you were an Indian vehicle maker wanting to sell your vehicle in the US. That is on the grounds that the rupee’s quality makes your vehicle substantially less reasonable to US customers.

How are exchange rates determined?

  • In a perfect world, the conversion scale for any money would be controlled by the interchange of its interest and supply.
  • For instance: If more Indians need to get US merchandise, there would be a more appeal for the dollar comparative with the rupee. This, thusly, would mean the dollar would be “more grounded” than the rupee — and gain in quality as the interest increments. On the off chance that request falls, the dollar would devalue comparative with the rupee (or the rupee would acknowledge comparative with the dollar).

What is currency manipulation?

  • This present reality is a long way from perfect. Most governments and national banks are making a fuss over producing more development and work at home.
  • More fragile household money comes in exceptionally helpful when governments are attempting to draw in remote interest and lift sends out.
  • China’s financial development has been basically fuelled by trading in the world.
  • Money control happens when governments attempt to falsely change the swapping scale to increase an “uncalled for” advantage in exchange.
  • As such, if China’s national bank purchases dollars in the forex showcase, it can falsely debilitate the yuan — and Chinese merchandise will at that point become increasingly reasonable (and aggressive) in the worldwide market.
  • Some measure of such “mediation” by national banks is permitted to lessen wild changes in the swapping scale. In any case, over the top and undisclosed mediations are not viewed as reasonable.

How did the US conclude that China was manipulating the yuan?

  • In the supposed “FX report” discharged by the US Treasury Department in May, it found that the yuan’s deterioration against the dollar was unmistakably more than its devaluation against an exchange weighted container of 24 monetary standards.
  • It additionally found that the yuan deteriorated more than what it ought to have if the fall were expected distinctly to the known intercessions by the Chinese national bank. The US blamed the People’s Bank for China for utilizing China’s state-claimed undertakings to do its filthy work.
  • The US has likewise discovered that Chinese specialists mediate all the more indefatigably when the yuan begins acknowledging against the dollar, however, look the other way when the yuan begins debilitating.

Connecting the dots:

  1. How is the money conversion standard decided? Who decides it?
  2. Clarify the Exchange rate in terms of Purchasing power equality (PPP).
  3. What is the Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER), Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)?

POLITY

Topic: General Studies 2

  • Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

Consumer protection bill 2019

Context

  • The Rajya Sabha passed the Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 that accommodates the foundation of experts for the convenient and compelling organization and settlement of purchaser questions.
  • The Bill tries to supplant the three-decade-old Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

Background:

  • The CPA, 1986 was instituted considering the huge number of buyers in India who are uneducated and are vulnerable to misuse by deceitful organizations. Subsequently, a significant target of this Act was to make purchasers mindful of the different quality-control measures (for example Trademark, BIS-mark and so on.) being utilized for the items and the rights accessible to them to look for Redressal against uncalled for rehearses.
  • Despite the fact that the effects have been generally positive as is unmistakable in the expanded buyer mindfulness and adherence of organizations to the quality-control gauges, there have been sure issues too. The development has left numerous rustic areas immaculate. Likewise, the moderate advancement of tending to the cases has brought about enormous scale pendency.

 Key features of the Bill include:

Definition of consumer: 

  • A buyer is characterized as an individual who purchases any great or benefits help for a thought. It does exclude an individual who acquires a useful for resale or a decent or administration for business reasons. It covers exchanges through all modes including disconnected, and online through electronic methods, mail order shopping, staggered advertising or direct selling.

Rights of consumers: 

Six shopper rights have been characterized in the Bill, including the privilege to:

  • be ensured against promoting of products and enterprises which are perilous to life and property;
  • be educated regarding the quality, amount, intensity, virtue, standard and cost of products or administrations;
  • be guaranteed of access to an assortment of products or administrations at aggressive costs; and
  • look for redressal against unreasonable or prohibitive exchange rehearses

Central Consumer Protection Authority: 

  • The focal government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to advance, secure and authorize the privileges of shoppers.
  • It will control matters identified with infringement of shopper rights, unjustifiable exchange rehearses and misdirecting promotions.
  • The CCPA will have an examination wing, headed by a Director-General, which may lead a request or examination concerning such infringement.
  • CCPA will do the accompanying capacities, including:
  • Asking into infringement of buyer rights, exploring and propelling indictment at the proper gathering;
  • Passing requests to review products or pull back administrations that are dangerous, repayment of the value paid, and cessation of the out of line exchange rehearses, as characterized in the Bill;
  • Giving bearings to the concerned dealer/maker/endorser/sponsor/distributor to either stop a bogus or deceiving promotion, or alter it;
  • Forcing punishments, and;
  • Giving security notification to purchasers against risky merchandise and ventures.

Penalties for misleading advertisement: 

  • The CCPA may force a punishment on a producer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and detainment for as long as two years for a bogus or misdirecting commercial. If there should be an occurrence of an ensuing offense, the fine may reach out to Rs 50 lakh and detainment of as long as five years.
  • CCPA can likewise deny the endorser of a deceptive commercial from underwriting that specific item or administration for a time of as long as one year.
  • For each resulting offense, the time of denial may reach out to three years. Be that as it may, there are sure special cases when an endorser won’t be held subject for such a punishment.

Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission: 

  • Shopper Disputes Redressal Commissions (CDRCs) will be set up at the region, state, and national levels.
  • A shopper can document a grumbling with CDRCs in connection to:
    • Uncalled for or prohibitive exchange rehearses;
    • Inadequate merchandise or administrations;
    • Cheating or misleading charging; and
    • The offering of merchandise or administrations available to be purchased which might be perilous to life and security.
  • Grievances against an out of line agreement can be recorded with just the State and National Appeals from a District CDRC will be heard by the State CDRC. Bids from the State CDRC will be heard by the National CDRC. Last intrigue will lie under the watchful eye of the Supreme Court.

Jurisdiction of CDRCs:

  • The District CDRC will engage grumblings where estimation of products and ventures doesn’t surpass Rs one crore. The State CDRC will engage objections when the worth is more than Rs one crore yet doesn’t surpass Rs 10 crore. Grievances with estimation of merchandise and enterprises over Rs 10 crore will be engaged by the National CDRC.

Product liability: 

  • Item risk implies the obligation of an item maker, specialist organization or vendor to remunerate a purchaser for any mischief or damage brought about by an imperfect decent or inadequate assistance. To guarantee pay, a buyer needs to demonstrate any of the conditions for imperfection or lack, as given in the Bill.

 New Bill- Benefit to Consumers

  • By and by consumers just have a solitary purpose of access to equity, which is tedious. Extra quick official cures are proposed in the bill through the Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA)
  • Impediment discipline to check deluding promotions and defilement of items
  • Item risk arrangement to dissuade makers and specialist co-ops from conveying damaged items or lacking administrations
  • The simplicity of moving toward Consumer Commission and Simplification of the Adjudication process
  • Degree for early transfer of cases through the intercession
  • Arrangement for rules for new-age customer issues: web-based business and direct selling

Conclusion:

  • However, certain issues such as the appointment of mediators to settle disputes are contentious as this would lead to the arm-twisting of the weaker parties and may encourage corruption. Also, the setting up of a Consumer Authority and the absence of provisions to streamline the conducting of cases in courts may only lead to greater regulations and complexities. Addressing these issues is necessary to ensure that the new amendments bring about definitive improvements in the CPA.

Connecting the dots:

  • Talk about the notable highlights of the buyer assurance bill 2019?

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements

  1. Abortion is illegal in India
  2. Abortion deaths constitute 8% of all maternal deaths per year in India.
  3. Presently, the woman must seek legal recourse if the pregnancy has gone over 20 weeks to terminate the pregnancy 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Consumer Protection Bill, 2019

  1. The Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) proposed under the bill can initiate class action, including enforcing recall, refund, and return of products.
  2. However, the bill falls short as it does not have provision for Mediation and e-filing of cases

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements

  1. Coal-fired power plants in India have to ensure that they curtail sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions by 2022 through the adoption of clean technologies 
  2. India’s installed power capacity as of March 2019 is 100,000 MW.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


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