UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (08-08-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 08-08-2019

Current Affairs and News (08-08-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Coastal zone management
  • River inter-linking
  • Giant parrots
  • Biodegradable Plastics
  • RBI’s monetary policy 
  • Centre unveils plan for coastal zone management

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (08-08-2019)

Coastal zone management

Part of: Mains GS III- Environmental Conservation

In News

  • The Environment Ministry has revealed a draft Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)
  • ESMF which is a piece of World Bank-supported task will direct how imminent foundation ventures arranged along the coast should be evaluated before they can apply for freedom.
  • The record was set up by the Society for Integrated Coastal Management, and Environment Ministry-associated body.
  • So far three seaside States, specifically Gujarat, Odisha, and West Bengal, have arranged Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Plans with help from the World Bank. Such plans would be set up for the chose beachfront stretches in different States/UT.
  • The record looks to help the Government of India in improving waterfront asset effectiveness and versatility, by building aggregate limit (counting networks and decentralized administration) for receiving and executing incorporated beach front administration draws near,

River inter-linking

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS- II – Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

In News

  • Tamil Nadu has been distributed 83 thousand million cubic feet (tmcft) of water under the proposed Godavari-Cauvery interface, as per a draft definite venture report
  • The report was set up by the National Water Development Agency (NWDA), a Central government association that depended on the errand of getting ready to proposition for connecting streams.
  • According to the ebb and flow NWDA proposition, a sum of 247 tmcft is looked to be occupied from the Godavari, through the Krishna stream, to the Pennar bowl.
  • As much as 163 tmcft will be separate for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and the equalization will be given to Tamil Nadu.
  • The report, which has been coursed to the States worried for sees, has not given solace to Tamil Nadu which has been requesting 200 tmcft of water,

Giant parrots

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS- III– Biodiversity 

In News

  • The remaining parts of a super-sized parrot that stood multiple feet tall (a large portion of the stature of a normal human) and wandered the Earth 19 million years prior have been found in New Zealand.
  • The parrot has been named Heracles inexpectatus to mirror its Herculean size and quality — and the sudden idea of the disclosure
  • The fledgling was around the size of the monster “dodo” pigeon and double the size of the basically jeopardized flightless New Zealand kakapo, already the biggest known parrot.
  • A year ago, researchers found the remaining parts of a monster tunneling bat that lived a great many years back in a similar area.
  • New Zealand, home to the now-wiped out flightless flying creature moa which was up to 3.6 meters tall with neck outstretched, is outstanding for its goliath winged creatures.

Biodegradable Plastics

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III- Environmental Conservation.

In News

  • Analysts from the University of Valle de Atemajac in Zapopan, Mexico have made biodegradable plastic from the juice of the thorny pear desert plant (which is decorated on the nation’s banner)
  • The mash of the thorny pear is blended in with non-dangerous added substances to create sheets that can be utilized for bundling (supplanting single-use plastics).
  • The new material starts to separate in the wake of sitting in the dirt for a month and when left in water, it separates in merely days.
  • Additionally, it doesn’t require unrefined petroleum-like customary plastics.
  • Specialists are as yet leading tests, however, they want to patent their item and search for accomplices in mid-2020, with an eye towards huge scale creation.

Do you know?

  • It’s assessed that between 1.15 million to 2.41 million tons of plastic are entering the sea every year from streams.
  • Biodegradable plastic will be plastic that decays normally in nature. This is accomplished when microorganisms in the earth process and separate the structure of biodegradable plastic.
  • Biodegradable plastics are produced using all-normal plant materials. These can incorporate corn oil, orange strips, starch, and plants.
  • In March, UN part states focused on “essentially diminish” single-use plastics throughout the following decade.
  • In this manner, numerous Indian states like Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu have prohibited such plastics

(MAINS FOCUS)


ECONOMY

TOPIC: General studies 2 & 3

  • Important International institutions, agencies, and forums, their structure, mandate.
  • Indian Growth & Economy
  • Economic Developments

RBI’s monetary policy 

Context

  • In its financial approach survey, the Monetary Policy Committee of the RBI chose to cut the repo rate by 35 premise focuses (bps)
  • The RBI’s repo rate has now fallen 110 premise focuses since February. The RBI likewise reported a few measures to help financial action.

What is monetary policy?

  • Financial arrangement alludes to the strategy of the national bank i.e., Reserve Bank of India, in issues of loan fees, cash supply and accessibility of credit.
  • It is through the financial approach, RBI controls expansion in the nation.
  • The financial approach alludes to the utilization of financial instruments under the influence of the national bank to control sizes, for example, loan costs, cash supply and accessibility of credit with the end goal of accomplishing a definitive target of monetary strategy.
  • RBI utilizes different money related instruments like REPO rate, Reverse RERO rate, SLR, CRR and so on to accomplish its motivation.

Objectives or Goals of Monetary Policy:

The following are the principal objectives of monetary policy:

  1. Full Employment:
  • Full work has been positioned among the principal destinations of the financial approach. It is a significant objective not just on the grounds that joblessness prompts wastage of potential yield, yet in addition in light of the loss of social standing and sense of pride.
  1. Price Stability:
  • One of the approach targets of money related strategy is to balance out the value level. The two market analysts and laymen support this approach since changes in costs carry vulnerability and flimsiness to the economy.
  • 2.Economic Growth: One of the most significant destinations of fiscal strategy as of late has been the quick monetary development of an economy. Financial development is characterized as “the procedure whereby the genuine per capita pay of a nation increments over an extensive stretch of time.”
  1. Balance of Payments:
  • Another target of the financial approach since the 1950s has been to keep up the balance to be determined of installments.
  1. Restriction of Inventories:
  • Overloading of stocks and items getting obsolete because of the abundance of stock regularly results is the infection of the unit. To keep away from this issue the focal fiscal position does this basic capacity of limiting the inventories. The primary goal of this approach is to maintain a strategic distance from over-stocking and inactive cash in the association
  1. Promotion of Exports and Food Procurement Operations:
  • Money related approach gives extraordinary consideration so as to help sends out and encourage the exchange. It is a free goal of the financial approach.
  1. Reducing the Rigidity: 
  • RBI attempts to realize the adaptabilities in the activities which give impressive self-rule. It supports increasingly focused condition and broadening. It keeps up its power over monetary framework at whatever point and any place important to keep up the order and reasonability in tasks of the money related framework.

Instruments of Monetary Policy:

  • The instruments of financial strategy are of two kinds: first, quantitative, general or indirect(CRR, SLR, Open market tasks, bank rate, repo rate, turn around repo rate); and second, subjective, specific or direct. (change in the edge cash, direct activity, moral suasion)
  • They influence the degree of total interest through the stockpile of cash, cost of cash and accessibility of credit.
  • Of the two sorts of instruments, the primary classification incorporates bank rate varieties, open market tasks and changing store prerequisites.
  • They are intended to control the general degree of credit in the economy through business banks.

Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)

  • Presently in India, the strategy loan cost required to accomplish the expansion target is chosen by the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC). MPC is a six-part council comprised of the Central Government (Section 45ZB of the altered RBI Act, 1934).
  • The MPC is required to meet at any rate multiple times in a year. The majority for the gathering of the MPC is four individuals. Every individual from the MPC has one vote, and in case of uniformity of votes, the Governor has a second or making choice.
  • The goals embraced by the MPC is distributed after the finish of each gathering of the MPC. Once in at regular intervals, the Reserve Bank is required to distribute an archive called the Monetary Policy Report to clarify:

(1) The wellsprings of swelling and

(2) The gauge of expansion for 6-year and a half ahead.

  • The 6 part Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) comprised of the Central Government according to Section 45ZB of the changed RBI Act, 1934. The principal meeting of the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) was hung on in Mumbai on October 3, 2016.
  • The organization of the MPC as in April 2019 is as per the following;
  • Legislative head of the Reserve Bank of India – Chairperson, ex officio;
  • Delegate Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, responsible for Monetary Policy.
    One official of the Reserve Bank of India to be assigned by the Central Board
  • Dr. Ravindra H. Dholakia, Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad – Member
  • Teacher Pami Dua, Director, Delhi School of Economics – Member
  • Shri Chetan Ghate, Professor, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) – Member

Why does monetary policy matter?

  • For what reason does financial strategy make a difference?
  • In any economy, financial movement, which is estimated by GDP or GDP, occurs in one of four different ways.
  • One, private people and family units burn through cash on utilization.
  • Two, the administration spends on its plan.
  • Three, private division organizations “contribute” in their gainful limit.
  • Four, the net fares — which is the distinction between what every one of them spends on imports as against what they acquire from trades.
  • The fiscal arrangement basically addresses that question. In each nation, the national bank is commanded to choose the expense of cash, which is all the more regularly known as the “financing cost” in the economy.
  • While different components make it hard for a national bank to precisely direct loan fees, as a thumb rule, RBI’s choice on the repo rate sets the markers for the remainder of the economy.

What is the repo rate?

  • Repo and Reverse repo are short for repurchase understandings between the RBI and the business banks in the economy. Generally, the repo rate is the loan cost that the RBI charges a business bank when it obtains cash from the RBI. Accordingly, if the repo falls, all loan costs in the economy should fall.

But the interest rate for consumer loans has not reduced by 110 bps since February. Why?

  • In reality, the “transmission” of a loan cost cut (or increment) is definitely not a hundred percent. Also, that is the reason, despite the fact that when the RBI cut by 35 bps on Wednesday, lay customers may just get a much lower decrease in the financing cost on their borrowings. This is because of a lot of variables — however principally, it has to do with the wellbeing of the concerned business bank.
  • In the course of recent years, practically all banks, particularly the ones in the open division, have seen their benefits plunge in light of the fact that a large number of their past advances have ended up being non-performing resources (at the end of the day, they are not getting reimbursed).
  • To cover these misfortunes, the banks need to utilize their current assets, which would have generally gone to normal buyers for new credits.
  • There is another key component that influences the banks’ choice.
  • The decreased repo rate applies just to new borrowings of banks.
  • The banks’ expense of existing assets is higher. Obviously, financing expenses would in the long run descend — yet this procedure would require some serious energy. This “slack” in money related arrangement is a key variable in deciding the adequacy of any rate cut by the RBI.
  • It could take anyplace somewhere in the range of 9 and year and a half for the full impact of an RBI choice to reflect in loan costs over the economy.

So, how does RBI decide the interest rate?

  • Any national bank has a couple of principle concerns:
  • The first is to guarantee value security in the economy. The loan cost grapples the costs in an economy. The RBI consistently maps costs, expansion (which is the pace of increment in costs), and desires for swelling (of family units) to choose in the event that it should increment or abatement loan fees.
  • The other related worry for a national bank is to deal with monetary development, For example, financial development is sickly at present and mostly as an outcome, the expansion rate has been underneath 4% for a while now. The RBI is, thusly, slicing loan costs to boost individuals to expend more and organizations to contribute more.

Will the rate cut bring investments?

  • Speculations depend basically on the “genuine” financing cost.
  • The genuine financing cost is the distinction between the repo rate and retail swelling.
  • When settling on a speculation choice, it is this loan fee that issues. As a variable, it enables a speculator to look at the engaging quality of various economies.

Conclusion:

So it can be concluded that the implementation of the monetary policy plays a very prominent role in the development of a country. It’s a kind of double edge sword, if money is not available in the market as the requirement of the economy, the investors will suffer (investment will decline in the economy) and on the other hand, if the money is supplied more than its requirement then the poor section of the country will suffer because the prices of essential commodities will start rising.

Connecting the dots:

  1. What is the purpose of setting up a Monetary policy committee (MPC)? What are its objectives? What is its present composition? Discuss.
  2. The ongoing slowdown is cyclical and not structural in nature. Elucidate

ENVIRONMENT

TOPIC: General studies paper 3

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment
  • Disaster and disaster management.

Centre unveils plan for coastal zone management

Context:

  • The Environment Ministry has divulged a draft plan that will direct how planned framework ventures arranged along the coast should be surveyed before they can apply for leeway.

Coastal Zones:

  • The Coastal zones are characterized by the degree of regional waters up to the high watermark. They are long, tight highlights of territory, islands, and oceans, for the most part framing the external limit of the beachfront space.
  • The Coastal Zone Management (CZM) is a procedure of administration that comprises of the lawful and institutional structure important to guarantee that advancement and the board plans for seaside zones are incorporated with natural and social objectives, and are created with the support of those influenced.
  • Seaside zone the board includes overseeing waterfront territories to adjust ecological, financial, human wellbeing, and human activities.

Purpose of Coastal Zone Management

  • The objectives of the Coastal Management (CZM) are to “save, secure, create, improve, and reestablish where conceivable, the beachfront assets.” The reasons for Coastal Zone Management are given beneath:
  1. To amplify the advantages given by the beachfront zone
  2. To limit clashes and destructive impacts of exercises upon one another, assets and the earth
  3. To advance linkages between sectoral exercises
  4. To control beachfront region advancement in an environmentally feasible manner

Coastal Regulation Zones

  • Waterfront stretches of oceans, bayous, estuaries, springs, streams, and backwaters were announced as CRZs under seaside zone guideline warning in 1991.
  • CRCs have been characterized into 4 zones with the end goal of guideline:
  • CRZ-I: incorporates environmentally delicate zones, where no development is permitted aside from exercises for nuclear power plants, safeguard.
  • CRZ-II: incorporates assigned urban regions that are significantly developed. Development exercises are permitted on the landward side as it were.
  • CRZ-III: incorporates generally undisturbed regions, primarily provincial territories. No new development of structures permitted in this zone with the exception of fixing the current ones. In any case, developments of staying units in the plot region lying between 200-500m of the elevated tide line are permitted.
  • CRZ-IV: incorporates the water region secured between Low Tide Line and 12 nautical miles toward the ocean. Aside from angling and related exercises, all activities upbraiding on the ocean and tidal water will be directed in this zone.

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986

Instituted in 1986, it is one of the most far-reaching enactments with a goal to secure and improve the earth. Article 48A under the Constitution of India indicates that the State will attempt to ensure and improve the earth and to shield the woodlands and natural life of the nation. The destinations of this Act are as per the following:-

  • To secure and improve the earth characteristics
  • To cover every one of the issues of condition
  • To make an authority with the end goal of natural insurance
  • To give an impediment discipline to the individuals who imperil human condition, security, and wellbeing

The Union Cabinet has affirmed the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification, 2018 which was last checked on and gave in 2011.

CRZ Notification 2018 depends on the proposals of the Shailesh Nayak board of trustees.

New Rules under CRZ regulations

  • The administration informed new CRZ Rules with the expressed destinations of advancing reasonable improvement and monitoring beach front situations.
  • For the purported CRZ-III (Rural) territories, two separate classifications have been stipulated.
  • In the thickly populated country zones (CRZ-IIIA) with a populace thickness of 2,161 for every sq km according to the 2011 Census, the no-improvement zone is currently 50 m from the elevated tide level, as against the 200 m stipulated before.
  • In the CRZ-IIIB class (provincial regions with populace thickness beneath 2,161 for each sq km) keep on having a no-advancement zone reaching out up to 200 m from the elevated tide line.
  • The new Rules have a no-improvement zone of 20 m for all islands near the terrain coast, and for all backwater islands in the territory.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM):

  • ICZM expects to improve the employment of beachfront networks and preserve the seaside biological system.
  • The ICZM plan includes distinguishing proof of framework requirements and employment improvement implies in beachfront areas. Preservation of mangroves is among the parts.
  • The national part of the task incorporates mapping of the nation’s coastline and division of the danger line.
  • It is a World Bank assisted the project.
  • It is being executed by the Department of Forests and Environment with help from the Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
  • The National Center for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM), Chennai, will give logical and specialized data sources

In news:

  • The Environment Ministry has revealed a draft plan that will direct how imminent framework ventures arranged along the coast should be evaluated before they can apply for freedom.
  • The draft Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) is a piece of a World Bank-subsidized undertaking.
  • The record sets down rules for waterfront States to embrace when they support and direct activities in beachfront zones.
  • The venture tries to help the Government of India in upgrading seaside asset productivity and versatility, by building aggregate limit (counting networks and decentralized administration) for embracing and executing coordinated waterfront the board draws near.
  • The archive was set up by the Society for Integrated Coastal Management, a Ministry-partnered body.
  • So far three waterfront States, to be specific Gujarat, Odisha, and West Bengal, have arranged Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans with help from the World Bank.

Proposed activities

  • The key exercises proposed for beachfront zone advancement that comprises of ventures by States include:
  • mangrove afforestation/cover beds,  
  • environment preservation exercises, for example, rebuilding of ocean grass knolls, eco-reclamation of holy forests, advancement of incubation facilities, raising/salvage communities for turtles and other marine creatures
  • formation of a framework for the travel industry,
  • reclamation and energize of water bodies,
  • seashore cleaning and advancement,
  • other little framework offices.

Conclusion:

  • A well-educated science-based beachfront zone the board technique implanted in a satisfactory social, institutional and legitimate system, can anticipate numerous future waterfront issues.

Connecting the dots

  1. Talk about India’s endeavors for marine condition protection and different activities identified with it

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements

  1. Researchers from Mexico have created a biodegradable plastic from the juice of the prickly pear cactus 
  2. The new material begins to break down after sitting in the soil for a month and when left in water, it breaks down in a matter of days
  3. The new biodegradable plastic uses only 30% crude oil inputs unlike traditional plastics which are made from 100% crude oil 

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

Q.2) The remains of a super-sized parrot named Heracles inexpectatus has been recovered in which country?

  1. Australia
  2. Central African Republic
  3. Madagascar
  4. New Zealand

Q.3) Consider the following statements about National Water Development Agency

  1. It is a statutory body set up under the River Boards Act, 1956 
  2. Recently it has released report which proposes to divert water from the Godavari, through the Krishna river, to the Pennar basin. 

Which of the statement(s) given above is / are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4) Consider the following statements about Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF)

  1. The framework will dictate how prospective infrastructure projects situated along the coast ought to be assessed before they can apply for clearance.
  2. It was prepared by the Society for Integrated Coastal Management, and Environment Ministry-affiliated body.

Which of the statement(s) given above is / are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


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