UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-08-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 09-08-2019

Current Affairs and News (09-08-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Bharat Ratna
  • Dixon Plan of 1950
  • Measles
  • Waste Recycling
  • Drug-resistant TB
  • Report by IPCC
  • Economic milestone and a poignant anniversary

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 09-08-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (09-08-2019)

Bharat Ratna

Part of: GS Prelims 

In News

  • The President of India introduced Bharat Ratna Awards to Nanaji Deshmukh (after death), Bhupendra Kumar Hazarika (post mortem) and Pranab Mukherjee
  • The Bharat Ratna is the most elevated non-military personnel grant of the Republic of India. Bharat Ratna beneficiaries rank seventh in the Indian request of priority
  • The honor was established in 1954
  • The principal beneficiaries of the Bharat Ratna were C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman, who were respected in 1954.
  • The honor is presented in acknowledgment of uncommon assistance/execution of the most noteworthy request in “any field of human undertaking”.  
  • The honor was initially constrained to accomplishments in expressions of the human experience, writing, science, and open administrations, yet this was changed in 2011.
  • Despite the fact that normally gave on India-conceived residents, the Bharat Ratna has been granted to one naturalized resident, Mother Teresa, and to two non-Indians, Pakistan national Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and previous South African President Nelson Mandela.
  • There is no conventional assignment process. The suggestions for the honor must be made by the Prime Minister to the President.
  • A limit of three chosen people can be granted every year.
  • Beneficiaries get an authentication marked by the President and an award. There is no fiscal award related to the honor.

Dixon Plan of 1950

Part of: Mains GS III- Internal Security

In News

  • Parliament received bill to make Jammu and Kashmir into two UT with cutting out of Ladakh from the remainder of State
  • Dividing J&K into at least two sections follows its source to the Dixon Plan of 1950
  • Owen Dixon, an Australian Jurist picked by the United Nations to intervene among India and Pakistan on the J&K issue, in his report of September 1950 recommended a bundle which didn’t discover acknowledgment from India
  • The arrangement had allotted Ladakh to India and northern zones and Pakistan-involved Kashmir to Pakistan, other than parting Jammu into two.
  • It has proposed a plebiscite in the Kashmir Valley
  • In any case, B.R.Ambedkar, after stopping as law minster from the Nehru Ministry, had recommended the arrangement of three zones: the territory held by Pakistan, the Valley and Jammu-Ladakh
  • Ambedkar had likewise supported a plebiscite just in the valley.

Measles

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS- III- Health.

In News

  • Sri Lanka has become the fourth nation in the Asian area – after Bhutan, Maldives, and Timor-Leste – to dispense with measles
  • Measles is a profoundly infectious viral sickness
  • It is transmitted by means of beads from the nose, mouth or throat of tainted people
  • Starting side effects incorporate high fever, running nose and red eyes. A few days after the fact, a rash creates on the face and upper neck gradually spreading downwards
  • It can cause hazardous inconvenience including encephalitis (contamination that prompts expanding of the cerebrum), serious looseness of the bowels, and lack of hydration, pneumonia, ear diseases, and perpetual vision misfortune
  • The illness is preventable however two dosages of sheltered and powerful immunization
  • Measles is viewed as wiped out when a nation interferes with transmission of an indigenous infection for a long time

Waste Recycling

Part of: Mains GS- III– Environmental Conservation

In News

  • IIT Madras understudy plans framework to reuse Urine,
  • The undertaking titled Water Chakra won the Indian Innovation Growth Program 2.0 in July
  • The concentrated pee is put away for three days to consider the area to get changed over into alkali
  • By a procedure of steam refining, the alkali is isolated and this business-grade fluid can be utilized to make cleaning items, for example, cleansers or in elastic assembling
  • Through electrochemical procedure, 90% of the water content is recuperated and can be utilized for planting purposes and flushing
  • The innovation can be utilized in network toilets to create assets for its own support

Drug-resistant TB

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS III- Science and Technology

In News

  • The test created by MedGenome Labs can give an itemized investigation of each and every change present in any TB Bacteria causing drug obstruction straightforwardly from the sputum
  • This Whole-Genome Sequencing-based Test-SPIT SEQ empowers specialists to rapidly and accurately endorse the best medication to a TB tolerant
  • The current sputum smear microscopy, Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CB-NAAT) and culture tests are tedious as well as don’t give a definite investigation of obstruction created by the patient to each and every change in the microbes.
  • With India having the biggest number of multidrug safe (MDR-TB) TB cases, SPIT SEQ can accomplish India’s SDG objective of taking out TB by 2025.

(MAINS FOCUS)


ENVIRONMENT/CLIMATE CHANGE

TOPIC: General Studies 3

  • Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Report by IPCC

Context:

  • Another report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) discharged Thursday shows the latest proof on how the various employments of land — woods, horticulture, urbanization — are influencing and getting influenced by environmental change.

What is IPCC?

  • This is an intergovernmental body under the UN. It is a logical body
  • Formed in 1988 by WMO (World Meteorological Organisation) and UNEP
  • It produces reports dependent on logical improvements over the world.
  • IPCC has so far created five evaluation reports, the most recent one was distributed in2014. It said that India’s high weakness and introduction to environmental change will slow its financial development, sway wellbeing and advancement, make neediness decrease increasingly troublesome and disintegrate nourishment security
  • The IPCC doesn’t complete its own unique research, nor does it take the necessary steps of observing the atmosphere or related marvels itself. The IPCC puts together its appraisal with respect to the distributed writing
  • It was granted the Nobel harmony prize in 2007
  • IPCC works under UNFCC
  • The points of the IPCC are to evaluate logical data significant to :
  • Human-instigated environmental change,
  • The effects of human-instigated environmental change,
  • Choices for adjustment and alleviation

What the new IPCC report says on land and climate change

  • This is the first occasion when that the IPCC, whose activity it is to survey effectively distributed logical writing to refresh our insight into environmental change science, has concentrated exclusively on the land segment.
  • Another report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) discharged Thursday introduces the latest proof on how the various employments of land — woods, agribusiness, urbanization — are influencing and getting influenced by environmental change.
  • The Geneva-based IPCC is the United Nations body for evaluating the science identified with environmental change. It was made “to furnish policymakers with ordinary logical appraisals on environmental change, its suggestions, and potential future dangers, just as to advance adjustment and relief alternatives”.

The land-climate link

  • Land use and changes in land use have consistently been a vital piece of the discussion on environmental change. That is on the grounds that land goes about as both the source just as a sink of carbon.
  • Exercises like agribusiness and dairy cattle raising, for instance, are a significant wellspring of methane and nitrous oxide, the two of which are many occasions more perilous than carbon dioxide as an ozone harming substance.
  • Simultaneously, soil, trees, manors, and backwoods assimilate carbon dioxide for the regular procedure of photosynthesis, in this way lessening the general carbon dioxide content in the climate.
  • This is the motivation behind why largescale land-use changes, similar to deforestation or urbanization, or even a change in trimming design, directly affect the general emanations of ozone harming substances.

The IPCC’s reports

  • This is the first occasion when that the IPCC, whose activity it is to evaluate effectively distributed logical writing to refresh our insight into environmental change science, has concentrated exclusively on the land area.
  • It is a piece of a progression of exceptional reports that IPCC is doing in the approach the 6th version of its principle report, flatly called the Assessment Reports, that is expected around 2022.
  • A year ago, the IPCC had delivered an uncommon report on the possibility of limiting worldwide ascent in temperature to inside 1.5 degrees Celsius from pre-mechanical occasions. These reports were looked for by governments to get a more clear image of explicit parts of environmental change.

Previous report

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) affirmed a Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C on October 6, 2018, at Incheon, South Korea.
  • The report focusses on continuing warming to under 1.5°C when contrasted with pre-mechanical occasions.
  • Forestalling an additional single level of warmth could have a crucial effect in the following barely any decades.
  • So it requires the world’s heads to confine future human-made warming only 0.5°Celsius from now.
  • This is, quite, well underneath the prior universally endless supply of 1° C from now.
  • The report subtleties how Earth’s climate, wellbeing, and biological systems could be improved.
  • It will be a key logical contribution to the Katowice Climate Change Conference in Poland in the coming December.
  • The administrations will audit the Paris Agreement to handle environmental change in this up and coming meeting

What present report says

  • The present report discusses the commitment of land-related exercises to an unnatural weather change — how the various employments of land, similar to agribusiness, industry, ranger service, dairy cattle raising, and urbanization, were influencing emanations of ozone-depleting substances.
  • A significant piece of the report discusses the way where even existential exercises like nourishment creation adds to a dangerous atmospheric deviation and are additionally influenced by it.
  • The report says that if pre-generation exercises like cows raising and after creation exercises like vehicle, vitality and nourishment preparing, is considered, at that point nourishment generation could contribute as much as 37 percent of every single nursery ga emanations consistently.
  • It brings up that almost 25 percent of all nourishment delivered is either lost or squandered. What’s more, even the decay of the waste discharges outflows.

Land, oceans, forests

  • Land and sea together assimilate about 50 percent of ozone-depleting substances radiated each year through regular procedures in the carbon cycle. The significance of land, or sea, as a carbon sink, in this manner can’t be exaggerated in the worldwide battle against environmental change. That is the reason afforestation, and decrease in deforestation, are crucial methodologies in a worldwide procedure to battle environmental change.

Conclusion

  • India’s activity plan on environmental change as well as a significant segment of woods. India has guaranteed that it would make an extra carbon sink of about 2.5 billion to 3 billion tons continuously in 2032 by expanding its woodland spread and planting more trees.

Connecting the dots:

  1. Examine the variables liable for long haul environmental change. What confirmations do we have that help current a dangerous atmospheric deviation? Clarify.
  2. The battle against environmental change is more compelling at the family unit level than large scale level arrangement plans. Do you concur? Prove.
  3. Basically assess the developing patterns in worldwide environmental change exchanges. Is the world heading the correct way in its battle against environmental change? Fundamentally analyze.

ECONOMY

TOPIC: General studies 2 & 3

  • Important International institutions, agencies, and forums, their structure, mandate.
  • Indian Growth & Economy
  • Economic Developments

Economic milestone and a poignant anniversary

CONTEXT:

  • Bank nationalization facilitated rustic credit and helped monetary incorporation. Any transition to turn around it would act naturally crushing

Nationalization of Banks:

  • The nationalization of banks in 1969 was a turning point throughout the entire existence of Indian banking.
  • From July 19 that year, 14 private banks were nationalized; another six private banks were nationalized in 1980.
  • It is sure that one can’t find a comparable transformational minute in the financial approach of any nation any time of time ever.

Banking system at the time of independence:

  • India’s country monetary framework was set apart by the mastery of landowners, dealers, and moneylenders.
  • In 1951, if a country’s family unit had an exceptional obligation of Rs. 100, about Rs. 93 originated from non-institutional sources.
  • From the 1950s, there were sporadic endeavors to grow the scope of the institutional segment, especially in the country regions.
  • Regardless of these measures, the transcendently private financial framework neglected to meet the credit needs of the provincial regions.

India’s banking policy after 1969 

  • As a piece of another branch permitting approach, banks were informed that for each branch they opened in a metropolitan or port territory, four new branches must be opened in unbanked rustic territories. Thus, the number of country bank offices expanded from 1,833 (in 1969) to 35,206 (in 1991)
  • The idea of need part loaning was presented. All banks needed to necessarily put aside 40% of their net bank credit for agribusiness, miniaturized scale, and little endeavors, lodging, instruction and “more fragile” areas.
  • A differential loan cost conspire was presented in 1974. Here, advances were given at a low financing cost to the weakest among the weakest areas of the general public.
  • The Lead Bank conspire was presented in 1969. Each region was doled out to one bank, where they went about as “pace-setters” in giving incorporated financial offices
  • The Regional Rural Banks (RRB) was built up in 1975 to extend the stockpile of institutional credit to the rustic zones
  • The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was comprised in 1982 to manage and regulate the elements of helpful banks and RRBs.
  • The portion of institutional sources in the exceptional obligation of rustic families expanded from only 16.9% in 1962 to 64% in 1992.

Growth spurring

  • India’s nationalization experience is a response to standard market analysts who contend that regulated loan fees cause “money related restraint”.
  • As per this view, if the administration manages loan fees, the reserve funds rate would decay, prompting a proportioning of venture reserves.
  • Despite what might be expected, India’s nationalization prompted a noteworthy development of budgetary intermediation.
  • The portion of bank stores to GDP rose from 13% in 1969 to 38% in 1991.
  • The gross investment funds rate rose from 12.8% in 1969 to 21.7% in 1990.
  • The portion of advances to GDP rose from 10% in 1969 to 25% in 1991.
  • The gross speculation rate rose from 13.9% in 1969 to 24.1% in 1990.
  • Nationalization likewise showed the utility of money related approach in encouraging redistributionist objectives
  • India’s nationalization shows that money related strategy, banks and loan fees can be viably used to take banks to provincial regions, in reverse districts and under-served divisions, assisting redistributionist objectives in an economy.

Arguments in favor of financial liberalization

  • The Narasimham Committee of 1991 prescribed that money-related arrangements ought to be separated from redistributionist objectives.
  • Rather, banks ought to be allowed to rehearse business methods of activity, with productivity as the essential objective
  • The Reserve Bank of India enabled banks to open and close branches as they wanted.
  • Need segment rules were weakened; banks were permitted to loan to exercises that were remotely associated with horticulture or too huge corporates in agri-business, yet arrange them as agrarian advances. Loan fee guidelines on need part propel were evacuated.

The outcomes:

  • In excess of 900 rustic bank offices shut down the nation over.
  • The pace of development of rural credit fell pointedly from around 7% per annum during the 1980s to about 2% per annum during the 1990s.
  • This retreat of open banks unleashed destruction on the rustic budgetary market.
  • Somewhere in the range of 1991 and 2002, the portion of institutional sources in the all-out exceptional obligation of provincial family units tumbled from 64% to 57.1%.

A to and fro

The government and the RBI probably saw the danger coming in banking policy

Following measures were taken:

  • In 2004, a strategy to twofold the progression of agrarian credit inside three years was declared. Just open banks could get this going.
  • In 2005, the RBI discreetly acquired another branch authorization strategy. Authorization for new branches started to be given just if the RBI was fulfilled that the banks concerned had an arrangement to sufficiently serve underbanked zones and guarantee genuine credit stream to farming.
  • In 2011, the RBI further fixed this system. It was ordered that at any rate, 25% of new branches were to be mandatorily situated in unbanked focuses.

Outcome of these initiatives:

  • The number of provincial bank offices rose from 30,646 of every 2005 to 33,967 out of 2011 and 48,536 out of 2015.
  • The yearly development pace of genuine agrarian credit rose from about 2% during the 1990s to about 18% somewhere in the range of 2001 and 2015.
  • Quite a bit of this new arrangement of horticultural credit didn’t go to ranchers; it to a great extent went to huge agri-business firms and corporate houses situated in urban and metropolitan focuses — yet recorded in the bank books as “farming credit.
  • open banks likewise assumed a focal job in assisting the monetary consideration plans of progressive governments.
  • Information shows that over 90% of the new straightforward records were opened in broad daylight banks

Conclusion:

  • The macroeconomic approach system of progressive governments has barely been strong in a financial structure ruled by open banks.
  • In the midst of moderate development, the abundant liquidity in banks was viewed as a substitute for counter-patterned financial strategy.
  • Progressive governments, terrified of higher monetary deficiencies, urged open banks to loan more for retail and individual advances, high-hazard infrastructural parts, and vehicle credits.
  • Subsequently, banks are in emergency with rising non-performing resources.  
  • A similar dread of financial shortages is likewise frightening the administration off from recapitalizing banks.
  • The arrangement set forward is an unreasonable one: privatization. The goose that lays brilliant eggs is being executed.

Connecting the dots:

  1. Indian banks need to determine their NPA issues at the soonest to support the economy for further improvement. What are the measures taken by concerned partners to address the issue?
  2. Talk about the effect of Nationalization of banks

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements

  1. Bharat Ratna awards were instituted in 1954 and the first recipients were Dr. B.R.Ambedkar, Sardar Patel and Jawaharlal Nehru
  2. Recipients receive a certificate signed by the President, a medal and monetary grant of 25 Lakh rupees.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Dixon Plan of 1950 was associated with which of the following?

  1. Israel-Palestine conflict
  2. USA’s plan to reconstruct Europe through provision of aid
  3. North Korea and South Korea conflict
  4. Kashmir conflict

Q.3) Which of the following countries have eliminated Measles

  1. Sri Lanka
  2. Bhutan
  3. Nepal
  4. India
  5. Timor-Leste

Select the correct answer from the codes given below?

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 1,2,4 and 5only
  3. 1,2 and 4 only
  4. 1,2 and 5 only

Q.4) Consider the following statements about Tuberculosis (TB)

  1. It is caused by the plasmodium parasite
  2. India has the largest number of multidrug-resistant TB cases

Which of the statement(s) given above is / are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


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