UPSC Exam | Current Affairs and News Analysis (26-07-2019)

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 26-07-2019

Current Affairs and News (26-07-2019)- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • Drug Menace
  • BRICS Foreign ministers meet
  • Overseas Sovereign bonds
  • Dracaena Cambodian: India’s first dragon blood-oozing tree
  • Single tribunal to settle inter-state water disputes
  • Population control

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 26-07-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (26-07-2019)

Drug Menace

Part of: Mains GS-I – Population and associated issues, poverty, and developmental issues

In News

  • The Northern States chose to set up joint working gathering to adequately battle sedate hazard in the locale
  • The joint gathering would attempt joint tasks at between state fringes, fortify data sharing on medications and street pharmacists for powerful crackdown against them
  • Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi and UT of Chandigarh are a piece of this gathering
  • The joint gathering would start a significant mindfulness program and endeavor to make destruction of medications a people’s development

Issues/Impact of Drug Abuse

  • India is in nearness to the Golden Crescent (Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan) just as the Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand) makes it defenseless against medicating dealing.
  • Wastage of monetary potential/efficiency of youthful populace as medication misuse prompts physical, mental, good and scholarly rot
  • Increment in wrongdoing and savagery rates – prompting aggressive behavior at home against ladies and kid misuse
  • Increment in wellbeing weight of State – Increase in frequencies of HIV, hepatitis B, and C and tuberculosis because of opiates dependence

BRICS Foreign ministers meet

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II -Important International institutions.

In News

  • Foreign Ministers of BRICS meeting to happen in Rio de Janerio
  • The objective is to plan for the summit of the BRICS pioneers, planned for November at Brasilia, Brazil’s capital city
  • Computerized economy5G and information localization-will command the BRICS outside clergymen meeting

Do you know?

  • The US has prohibited Chinese telecom organization Huawei (a precursor in 5G innovation) on claims of robbery of Intellectual property, money related misrepresentation, and National security chance
  • India is yet to explain whether it will incorporate Huawei in its preliminaries of 5G gear planned to begin in September
  • Information localization – RBI has passed rules that monetary information relating to Indians is put away just in Indian servers
  • BRICS is a casual gathering of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa shaped in 2006
  • BRICS nations speak to 41% of worldwide populace and together contribute almost 23% of gross world item

Overseas Sovereign bonds

Part of: Mains GS-II – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources

In News

  • PMO has requested that the Finance Ministry lead a nitty-gritty review on the issuance of abroad sovereign bonds considering analysis raised by specialists
  • The administration had reported in the 2019-20 spending plan to raise a segment of gross getting by giving abroad sovereign bond

What is Overseas remote bond?

  • A sovereign bond is a particular obligation instrument gave by the legislature.
  • It vows to pay the purchaser a specific measure of enthusiasm for a stipulated number of years and reimburse the assumed worth on development.
  • At the point when sovereign securities are named in remote money and can be settled in outside business sectors, it is, by and large, alluded to as Foreign sovereign securities

Analysis of Foreign Sovereign bonds

  • An administration security gave in outside money (generally in US dollars) moves the cash chance (conversion standard hazard) from financial specialist to the guarantor (for this situation, the legislature)
  • It makes the country dependent on outside inflows and powerless against worldwide vulnerabilities

Benefits of Foreign Sovereign Bonds

  • Indian government’s obligation to GDP proportion (~68%) isn’t high, the conversion scale is steady, and outside trade saves are high – Thus, there is Macro-financial strength to retain any worldwide stuns
  • Additionally, outside speculators’ possessions in Indian obligation has been low (3.6% of exceptional government protections) – in this way scope for development of remote obligation
  • Indian government’s household acquiring is swarming out private venture, in this manner taking advantage of outside assets opens up credit space for residential private financial specialists
  • It might encourage the consideration of India’s administration bonds in the worldwide obligation records which would likewise improve the engaging quality of rupee-designated sovereign bonds.
  • The rates at which the administration acquires abroad will go about as a measuring stick for evaluating of other corporate securities, assisting India Inc with raising cash abroad

Miscellaneous News

Dracaena Cambodian: India’s first dragon blood-oozing tree

  • Specialists have found Dracaena Cambodian, a winged serpent tree animal groups in West Karbi Anglong, Assam.
  • The plant yields winged serpent’s blood — a splendid red pitch utilized since old occasions as medication, body oil, varnish, incense and color
  • A few antifungal and antibacterial mixes, cell reinforcements, flavonoids, and so forth., have been extricated from different pieces of the plant.

(MAINS FOCUS)


POLITY/GOVERNANCE

TOPIC: General studies 2

  • INTER-STATE RIVER WATER DISPUTES
  • Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues, and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

Single tribunal to settle inter-state water disputes

Context:

  • The Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019, which tries to correct the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956, proposes setting up of a central council.

Concerns

  • Setting up a council, and granting of the case, can take anything somewhere in the range of six and 20 years
  • There are nine councils. Four courts took 10-28 years to convey their honors. There is no time period to mediate debates, and courts are expanded inconclusively.

Between state waterway water debates:

The Inter-State River Water Disputes are one of the most touching issues in Indian federalism today. In extraordinary cases, it might hamper the connection between the various states.

India’s Federal Water Institutions

The applicable arrangements of the Indian Constitution are

  • Section 17 of State Listdeals with water, for example, water supply, water system, channel, waste, banks, water stockpiling and water control.
  • Passage 56 of Union List enables the Union Government for the guideline and advancement of between state streams and waterway valleys to the decree proclaimed by Parliament to be practical in people in general intrigue.

As per Article 262, if there should arise an occurrence of debates identifying with waters:

  • Parliament may by law accommodate the arbitration of any debate or grumbling as for the utilization, dissemination or control of the waters of, or in, any between State stream or waterway valley.
  • Parliament may, by law give that neither the Supreme Court nor some other court will practice locale in regard to any such debate or objection as referenced previously.

Parliament has sanctioned two laws as indicated by Article 262:

1) River Board Act, 1956

  • The motivation behind this Act was to empower the Union Government to make Boards for Interstate Rivers and waterway valleys in an interview with State Governments. The goal of Boards is to exhort on the between state bowl to get ready advancement plot and to anticipate the development of contentions.

Note: To date, no waterway board according to the above Act has been made.

2) Inter-State Water Dispute Act, 1956

  • Arrangements of the Act: on the off chance that, if a specific state or states way to deal with Union Government for the constitution of the court:
  • The focal Government should attempt to determine the issue by interview among the abused states.
  • On the off chance that, in the event that it doesn’t work, at that point, it might comprise the council.

Note: Supreme Court will not scrutinize the Award or recipe given by council yet it can scrutinize the working of the court

Component of Inter-State River Water Disputes Resolution

The goals of the water debate is administered by the Inter-State Water Disputes Act, 1956.

  • As per its arrangements, if a State Government makes a solicitation with respect to any water contest and the Central Government is of the supposition that the water debate can’t be settled by exchanges, at that point a Water Disputes Tribunal is established for the mediation of the water question.
  • The demonstration was changed in 2002, to incorporate the significant proposals of the Sarkaria Commission.
  • The changes ordered a one-year time allotment to arrangement the water debates court and furthermore a multi-year time period to give a choice

Significant interstate waterway water questions

River (s)States
Ravi and BeasPunjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
NarmadaMadhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
KrishnaMaharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana
VamsadharaAndhra Pradesh & Odisha
CauveryKerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Puducherry
GodavariMaharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha
MahanadiChhattisgarh, Odisha
MahadayiGoa, Maharashtra, Karnataka
PeriyarTamil Nadu, Kerala

Issues with the Inter-State River Water Dispute Act, 1956

  • Under this Act, a different Tribunal must be set up for each debate. There are eight between state water debate courts, including the Ravi and Beas Waters Tribunal and Krishna River Water Dispute Tribunal.
  • Right now there is no time limit for mediation or distribution of reports.
  • Just three of the eight councils have really given honors acknowledged by the states.
  • Councils like those on the Cauvery and Ravi Beas have been in presence for more than 26 and 30 years individually with no honor.
  • There is no upper age limit for the director or the individuals.
  • The debates’ goals by and large have not been successful Disputes have repeated, there have been long deferrals in arbitration and States have not conformed to decisions of councils.

Deferrals in settling the water questions

Outrageous deferrals have been an expensive component of the way toward settling between state water debates in India. There have been three parts or measurements of postponement.

  • There have been outrageous deferral in comprising courts. For instance: For the situation of the Cauvery contest, two of the bowl states, Tamil Nadu and Kerala had requested reference to a council, thinking back to the 1970s. The council was comprised distinctly in 1990 after the Supreme Court intervened
  • Courts have set aside significant stretches of effort to give their honors. For instance: It took nine years from the reference on account of the Narmada Tribunal, four years on account of the Krishna Tribunal and ten years on account of the Godavari Tribunal.
  • There have been delays in informing the sets of courts in the Government of India’s authentic periodical; this has brought about postponements and vulnerability in the authorization. For instance: The procedure took three years on account of the Krishna Award and one year on account of the Godavari Award. These postponements normally will, in general, confound the debate settlement process

Arrangements of the Inter-State River Water Disputes(amendment bill)2019:

  • The new Bill proposes to decrease the time it takes to establish a court by framing a perpetual office, containing seats that will be allowed to hear more than one question.
  • The complete timeframe for settling of a water question by the Tribunal has been fixed at a limit of four-and-a-half years.
  • The choice of the Bench of the Tribunal will be conclusive and authoritative on the states with no necessity of the production in the Official Gazette.

Conclusion

  • Ebb and flow Indian water-debate settlement instruments are questionable and murky.
  • A helpful dealing system proposes that water can be shared productively, with repaying moves as fundamental, if introductory water rights are well-characterized, and if organizations to encourage and actualize helpful understandings are set up.
  • Deferral in the element of understanding over water can energize wasteful, non-agreeable interests in dams, water systems, and so on.

Connecting the dots:

  • Could the setting up of a solitary court help in settling stream water sharing issues? Talk about.
  • Between state stream, water debates have stayed a hostile issue post-freedom. Would you be able to propose scarcely any measures to address those?
  • Is politicization of between state water questions adding to change in courts’ working? Give your sentiments
  • Between State River Water Disputes in India: Is it time for another system as opposed to courts? clarify.

POPULATION 

TOPIC: General studies 1

  • Population and associated issues

General studies 2

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. 

Population control

Context:

  • On July 11, World Population Day, a Union Minister communicated alert, in a Tweet, over what he called the “populace blast” in the nation, needing every single ideological group to authorize populace control laws and revoking the democratic privileges of those having multiple youngsters

Concerns

  • A huge and developing populace is at the base of a country’s issues as an ever-increasing number of individuals pursue less and less assets
  • The harm done when misusing issues of populace development is dependable.

What does Economic survey 2018-19 says about population control?

  • The Survey takes note of that India is set to observe a “sharp log jam in populace development in the following two decades”.
  • States with high populace development are additionally the ones with the most reduced per capita accessibility of medical clinic beds.

What’s the fact?

  • The truth of the matter is that by the 2030s, a few States will begin changing to a maturing society as a component of a well-examined procedure of “statistic progress” which sees countries gradually advance toward a steady populace as ripeness rates fall with an improvement in social and financial improvement lists after some time.

Dangers of population explosion:

  • An enormous and developing populace is at the base of a country’s issues as an ever-increasing number of individuals pursue fewer and fewer assets.
  • It doesn’t take a lot to prepare open conclusions which thusly can rapidly deteriorate into a profound class or strict clash that pits poor people, the feeble, the discouraged and the minorities against the more advantaged areas.

Population policies:

  • Populace Policies defined to address the neglected requirements for contraception, medicinal services foundation, and wellbeing workforce, and to give incorporated assistance conveyance to essential conceptive and youngster social insurance.
  • The fundamental goal is to accomplish a steady populace at a level predictable with the necessities of supportable monetary development, social advancement, and ecological insurance.
  • India is the primary nation on the planet to start a populace control program in 1952. It underlined the utilization of regular gadgets for family arranging.
  • The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 gives an approach structure of accomplishing objectives and organizing methodologies during the following decade to meet the regenerative and kid wellbeing needs of the individuals of India alongside the objective to accomplish the net substitution levels (Total Fertility Rate). It goes for a stable populace by 2045.
  • It was forward-looking National Population Policy (NPP)which was presented in 2000 when Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister.

The following national socio-demographic goals were formulated to be achieved by 2010:

  • The ‘absolute richness rate’ to be decreased to 2.1.
  • The high-class conception prevention administrations must be made accessible publically with the goal that the standard of two youngsters could be embraced.
  • The newborn child death rate must be decreased to 30 for every thousand.
  • The mother death rate had additionally to be diminished to underneath 100 for every one lakh.
  • The late marriage of young ladies must be empowered.

The essence of NPP(2000)

  • Intentional and educated decision and assent regarding residents while profiting of conceptive social insurance administrations”
  • Target free approach in overseeing family arranging administrations

Argument of NPP

The lifecycle system” which looks to the wellbeing and sustenance needs of mother and kid not only during pregnancy and labor yet “directly from the hour of origination till the youngster develops and continuing till the juvenile stage and further

This contention isn’t tied in with refusing any assistance yet about offering decisions and a scope of administrations to mother and kid on the unmistakable understanding that the statistic profit can work to help develop and drive open door for conventional individuals just when the populace is sound.

Crucial connections

  • Family health, child survival and the number of children a woman has been closely tied to the levels of health and education of the parents, and in particular the woman
  • So the poorer the couple, the more the children they tend to have.
  • The poor tend to have more children because child survival is low, son preference remains high, children lend a helping hand in economic activity for poorer households and so support the economy as well as the emotional needs of the family.

What does National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) says in this context?

  • It says that there is a depth of the connections between health, education, and inequality
  • women in the lowest wealth quintile have an average of 1.6 more children than women in the highest wealth quintile
  • wealthiest total fertility rate is 1.5 compare to that of the poorest which was 3.2 children
  • Women with no schooling have an average of 3.1 children, compared with 1.7 children for women with 12 or more years of schooling.

Conclusion

  • Turning this into a problem that needs to be controlled is exactly the kind of phraseology, mindset and possibly action that will spell doom for the nation.
  • It will undo all the good work that has been done and set the stage for a weaker and poorer health delivery system — exactly the opposite of what a scheme such as Ayushman Bharat seeks to achieve.
  • Today, as many as 23 States and Union Territories, including all the States in the south region, already have fertility below the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman. So, support rather than control works.

Connecting the dots

  • Population truly becomes a thriving resource; the lifeblood of a growing economy. Elucidate
  • Does India have a population policy? What are its objectives? What is the need of having a population policy? Elucidate.

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by whataftercollege are the “correct answers”.
  • Q.1) Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle often seen in news is related to which context
  1. Astronomy and Constellations
  2. International geo-politics
  3. Quantum Physics
  4. Drug Menace

Q.2) Arrange the following international institutions/groupings in the chronological order of their founding year

  1. SAARC
  2. BRICS
  3. BIMSTEC
  4. ASEAN
  5. IBSA

Select the correct answer from the codes given below

  1. 4-1-3-2-5
  2. 4-1-3-5-2
  3. 1-4-2-5-3
  4. 4-3-1-5-2

Q.3) Justice BN Srikrishna committee has recently seen in news deals with which of the following?

  1. Data protection
  2. Surplus reserves of RBI
  3. Surplus reserves of SEBI
  4. Foreign Sovereign Bonds

Q.4) Consider the following with respect to Masala Bonds

  1. Masala bonds are bonds issued outside India but denominated in Indian Rupees, rather than the local currency
  2. The currency risk/exchange rate risk lies with the issuer of the bonds

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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