UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (22-08-2019)

Current Affairs 22-08-2019

Highlights |UPSC Exam Current Affairs 22-08-2019

UPSC exam current affairs 22-08-2019- The following article contains all the updated events and news for IAS Preparation. Our daily IAS Current Affairs and News cover the most important topics to give precise information to the reader and IAS Aspirants.

  • KUTCH DESERT
  • NISHTHA
  • CITIZENSHIP
  • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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UPSC Exam Current Affairs 22-08-2019 are followed in the part below:

UPSC Exam Current Affairs and News Analysis (22-08-2019)

Kutch Desert

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains I – Ancient History

In News

  • An ongoing report has demonstrated that the hot parched desert of Kutch was at one time a moist sub-tropical backwoods with an assortment of fowls, freshwater fish and conceivably giraffes and rhinos.
  • The fossils, comprising generally of ribs, and parts of teeth and bones, were uncovered from Palasava town of Rapar taluk in Kutch, Gujarat.
  • Generally, the fossil finds from Palasava recommend that a rich assorted variety of fauna and verdure continued in warm, damp/wet, tropical to sub-tropical natural conditions during the Middle Miocene (14 Million years back).
  • The majority of fossils uncovered in Kutch have so far been for the most part marine life forms, because of their nearness to the Arabian Sea.
  • Geographical changes in the long run shut off the salt-pads’ association with the ocean and the locale transformed into a huge lake, inevitably turning out to be salty wetlands.

Significance of the findings

  • Kutch is a potential fortune trove of well-evolved creature fossils with conceivable coherence to vertebrate fossils in the Siwalik, spreading over Pakistan to Nepal.
  • It likewise indicates pieces of information on how warm-blooded creatures scattered among Africa and the Indian subcontinent when some portion of India was in the Gondwanaland supercontinent that existed about 300 million years prior.

State rooftop solar attractiveness Index (SARAL)

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Environmental Conservation

In News

  • SARAL Index assesses Indian states dependent on their engaging quality for housetop advancement
  • It has been structured cooperatively by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation (SSEF), Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) and Ernst and Young (EY).
  • SARAL currently captures five key aspects –
  1. Robustness of policy framework
  2. Implementation environment
  3. Investment climate
  4. Consumer experience
  5. Business ecosystem
  • The Index would incentivise rooftop solar by creating healthy competition among the States.

Do You know?

  • India has set an objective of 175 GW of sustainable power source limit by 2022, of which 100 GW sunlight based power is to be operational by March 2022, of which 40 GW is relied upon to originate from matrix associated sun oriented housetops.
  • Karnataka has been put at the main position in SARAL Index. Telangana, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh have second, third and fourth position separately.

NISHTHA

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains II – Issues relating to Education

In News

  • Association Human Resource Development (HRD) Minister propelled NISHTHA to construct limits of 42 Lakh government instructors the nation over.
  • National Mission to improve Learning Outcomes at the Elementary level (NISHTHA) is the world’s biggest instructors preparing system of its sort.
  • Under it, instructors will build up their aptitudes on different perspectives identified with Learning Outcomes, School Safety and Security, ICT in educating picking up including Artificial Intelligence, Environmental Concerns and School-Based Assessment in a blissful learning way.
  • Preparing will be led straightforwardly by 33120 Key Resource Persons (KRPs) and State Resource Persons (SRP) distinguished by the State and UTs, who will thusly be prepared by 120 National Resource Persons recognized from NCERT, NIEPA, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), CBSE and NGO.
  • Preparing will be led straightforwardly by 33120 Key Resource Persons (KRPs) and State Resource Persons (SRP) distinguished by the State and UTs, who will thusly be prepared by 120 National Resource Persons recognized from NCERT, NIEPA, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan (KVS), Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS), CBSE and NGO.

(MAINS FOCUS)


CITIZENSHIP

TOPIC: General Studies 2

  • Outcast issue; Citizenship Amendment Bill.
  • Government strategies and mediations for improvement in different parts and issues emerging out of their structure and usage.
  • Welfare plans for powerless areas of the populace by the Center and States and the presentation of these plans.
  • Impact of arrangements and governmental issues of created and creating nations on India’s inclinations, Indian diaspora.

How an Indian citizen is defined

Context:

  • In the approach the distribution of the last National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam, citizenship has gotten the most discussed theme in the nation.

Concerns:

  • The Assam government has been making different strides in connection to the individuals who will be let well enough alone for the NRC, while the Supreme Court a week ago dismissed a request to remember those conceived for India between after March 24, 1971 and before July 1, 1987 except if they had familial connects to India. In some other Indian state, they would have been residents by birth, yet the law is distinctive for Assam

How is citizenship determined?

  • Citizenship means the connection between individual and state. It starts and finishes with state and law, and is along these lines about the state, not individuals. Citizenship is thought of avoidance as it bars non-residents.
  • There are two understood standards for the award of citizenship. While jus soli presents citizenship based on the spot of the birth, jus sanguinis offers acknowledgement to blood ties. From the hour of the Motilal Nehru Committee (1928), the Indian authority was supportive of the illuminated idea of jus soli. The racial thought of jus sanguis was dismissed by the Constituent Assembly as it was against the Indian ethos.
  • Citizenship is in the Union List under the Constitution and in this manner under the elite ward of Parliament.
  • The Constitution doesn’t characterize the term ‘resident’ however gives, in Articles 5 to 11, subtleties of different classifications of people who are qualified for citizenship.
  • In contrast to different arrangements of the Constitution, which appeared on January 26, 1950, these articles were authorized on November 26, 1949, itself, when the Constitution was embraced. Notwithstanding, Article 11 itself presents wide powers on Parliament by setting out that “nothing in the previous arrangements will criticize from the intensity of Parliament to make any arrangement as for the securing and end of citizenship and all issues identifying with citizenship”. Hence Parliament can conflict with the citizenship arrangements of the Constitution.
  • The Citizenship Act, 1955 was passed and has been corrected multiple times — in 1986, 2003, 2005, and 2015. The Act engages the administration to decide the citizenship of people for whose situation it is in question.
  • Be that as it may, throughout the decades, Parliament has limited the more extensive and all-inclusive standards of citizenship dependent on the reality of birth. In addition, the Foreigners Act puts an overwhelming weight on the person to demonstrate that he is definitely not an outsider.

So who is, or is not, a citizen of India?

  • Article 5: It was given to citizenship on the initiation of the Constitution. Each one of those domiciled and conceived in India was given citizenship. Indeed, even the individuals who were domiciled yet not conceived in India, however, both of whose guardians was conceived in India, were viewed as residents. Any individual who had been a normal inhabitant for over five years, as well, was qualified to apply for citizenship.
  • Article 6: Since Independence was gone before by Partition and relocation, Article 6 set out that any individual who moved to India before July 19, 1949, would consequently turn into an Indian resident if both of his folks or grandparents was conceived in India. Be that as it may, the individuals who entered India after this date expected to enrol themselves.
  • Article 7: Even the individuals who had relocated to Pakistan after March 1, 1947, however accordingly returned on resettlement licenses were incorporated inside the citizenship net. The law was progressively thoughtful to the individuals who relocated from Pakistan and called them evacuees than to the individuals who, in a mess, were stranded in Pakistan or went there yet chose to return soon.
  • Article 8: Any Person of Indian Origin living outside India who, or both of whose guardians or grandparents, was conceived in India could enlist oneself as stomach muscle Indian resident with Indian Diplomatic Mission.
  • 1986 correction: Unlike the sacred arrangement and the first Citizenship Act that gave citizenship on the guideline of jus soli to everybody conceived in India, the 1986 revision to Section 3 was less comprehensive as it included the condition that the individuals who were conceived in India on or after January 26, 1950, however before July 1, 1987, will be Indian resident. Those brought into the world after July 1, 1987, and before December 4, 2003, notwithstanding one’s own introduction to the world in India, can get citizenship just if both of his folks was an Indian resident at the hour of birth.
  • 2003 change: The then NDA government made the above condition progressively stringent, keeping in see the penetration from Bangladesh. Presently the law requires that for those conceived on or after December 4, 2004, notwithstanding the reality of their own introduction to the world, the two guardians ought to be Indian residents or one parent must be Indian resident and other ought not to be an unlawful transient. With these prohibitive revisions, India has nearly moved towards the restricted standard of jus sanguinis or blood relationship. This sets out that an illicit transient can’t guarantee citizenship by naturalization or enrollment regardless of whether he has been an occupant of India for a long time.
  • Citizenship (Amendment) Bill: The change proposes to allow individuals from six networks — Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan — to keep on living in India on the off chance that they entered India before December 14, 2014. It additionally lessens the prerequisite for citizenship from 11 years out of the previous 14 years, to only 6 years. Two notices likewise excluded these vagrants from the Passport Act and Foreigner Act. An enormous number of associations in Assam challenged this Bill as it might concede citizenship to Bangladeshi Hindu illicit vagrants.

What is different in Assam?

  • The Assam Movement against illicit migration, in the long run, prompted the memorable Assam Accord of 1985, marked by Movement pioneers and the Rajiv Gandhi government.
  • Likewise, the 1986 change to the Citizenship Act made an extraordinary classification of residents in connection to Assam.
  • The recently embedded Section 6A set out that all people of Indian birthplace who entered Assam before January 1, 1966, and have been conventional occupants will be regarded, Indian residents.
  • The individuals who came after 1 January 1966 however before March 25, 1971, and have been normal occupants, will get citizenship at the expiry of 10 years from their recognition as an outsider. During this break period, they won’t reserve the option to cast a ballot yet can get an Indian visa.
  • Distinguishing proof of outsiders was to be done under the Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunal) Act, (IMDT Act), 1983, which was appropriate just in Assam while the Foreigners Act, 1946 was relevant in the remainder of the nation.
  • The arrangements of the IMDT Act made it hard to expel unlawful outsiders. On the appeal of Sarbananda Sonowal (presently Chief Minister), the Act was held illegal and struck somewhere around the Supreme Court in 2005. This was in the end supplanted with the Foreigners (Tribunals of Assam) Order, 2006, which again was struck down in 2007 in Sonowal II.
  • In the IMDT case, the court considered order dependent on land contemplations to be an infringement of the privilege to uniformity under Article 14. Truth be told, another such variety was at that point set up. While the cutoff date for Western Pakistan is July 19, 1949, for Eastern Pakistan the Nehru-Liaquat Pact had pushed it to 1950.

Constitutionality of Section 6A

  • A five-judge Bench of the Supreme Court is yet to analyze the lawfulness of Section 6A under which the present NRC has been readied.
  • The Bench headed by Justice Madan B Lokur held its hearing on April 19, 2017, however it was broken upon the retirement of Justice P C Pant in August 2017. The Supreme Court, in its request a week ago, wouldn’t stretch out prohibitive arrangements of revisions to Assam in perspective on an alternate regulation for them in Section 6A.
  • In Assam Sanmilita Mahasangha (2014) where the lawfulness of the 1986 correction was tested (the Mahasangha contends that the cutoff year for Assam ought to be 1951 rather if 1971), the court alluded the issue to the Constitution Bench.
  • While Section 6A was embedded in 1986 because of the Assam Accord, which has been talked about finally by the court, the court acknowledged the demand to its lawfulness in 2014 and alluded to the Constitution Bench 13 inquiries, for example, regardless of whether Section 6A is established and legitimate however it endorses an alternate cutoff date for Assam (1971) from the one recommended in the Constitution for the remainder of the nation (1949). Be that as it may, at that point, this arrangement was about citizenship on the initiation of the Constitution.

Conclusion:

  • Assam has borne the brunt of movement in manners that disrupted such huge numbers of personalities and made distributive clashes.
  • The way toward finishing the National Register of Citizens is on, and in any case, its outcomes are going to leave enormous quantities of individuals antagonized and helpless.
  • The genuine test for India will start after the way toward distinguishing outsiders is finished. What do we do with individuals we will have proclaimed stateless? How would we address these worries without an unbalanced weight falling on Assam

Connecting the dots:

  1. Assam has excluded four million people from its National Register of Citizens (NRC). Now, it doesn’t know what to do with them. Comment.
  2. Modern nations are products of migrations and cultural diffusion and all the richer for it. NRC process doesn’t seem alive to this reality. Discuss.
  3. Political parties must stop feasting on the complexities of Assam’s demography. Examine.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

TOPIC: General studies 2

  • Government arrangements and intercessions for improvement in different areas and issues emerging out of their plan and usage.
  • Welfare plans for powerless areas of the populace by the Center and States and the presentation of these plans; instruments, laws, organizations and Bodies established for the security and advancement of these defenseless segments.

The ‘Kerala Model’ is unsustainable

Context:

  • Over the years, parties have responded to commercial interests over the welfare of people

Concerns:

  • In 2018 Kerala was overpowered by a remarkable regular occasion. Flooding joined with avalanches caused numerous passings. Floods were not new to Kerala, which gets high precipitation. What was new contrasted with the hours of similarly high precipitation in the early piece of the only remaining century was the flooding because of the bumbling dam the board and the defenselessness of the landscape incited by the example of land use?
  • In 2019 we have seen a portion of this rehashed. This year the avalanches have caused most passings. They are a moderately late wonder, indicating the job of uncontrolled financial development.

Kerala Model of Development:

The positive side, -Kerala has

  • Relatively low degrees of essential sexual orientation disparity (reflected, for example, in a high female-male proportion),
  • Generally fair instructive chances (in reality, close all-inclusive proficiency, particularly among the youthful),
  • Broad standardized savings courses of action (for example wide-based qualifications to residence land, mature age benefits and the ‘open circulation framework.
  • The restricted occurrence of station mistreatment (for example not many rough wrongdoings against booked ranks),
  • Low rustic urban incongruities.
  • The job of fundamental training (and. especially of female education) in advancing essential abilities
  • The good position and educated organization regarding ladies urgent to a wide scope of social accomplishments;
  • The entrance to open utilities;
  • The job of open activity in a wide sense, including the State and general society on the loose.
  • Commended for the high human improvement markers it is accepted to have given to the State

Failures:

  • Similarly low degrees of fundamental sexual orientation disparity (reflected, for example, in a high female-male proportion),
  • Moderately impartial instructive chances (for sure, close all-inclusive education, particularly among the youthful),
  • Broad government disability plans (for example wide-based qualifications to residence land, mature age annuities and the ‘open dispersion framework.
  • Restricted frequency of rank persecution (for example barely any rough violations against planned standings),
  • Low country urban incongruities.
  • The job of essential instruction (and. especially of female education) in advancing fundamental capacities.
  • The great position and educated organization regarding ladies essential to a wide scope of social accomplishments;
  • The entrance to open utilities;
  • The job of open activity in a wide sense, including the State and general society on the loose.
  • Commended for the high human improvement markers it is accepted to have gave to the State

Conclusion:

  • To leave this swamp the individuals of Kerala would need to depend on themselves. They have to recognize that their utilization design must change as it has unfavorably affected the regular habitat, the outcomes of which have started to hurt them. In this undertaking they are probably not going to be guided by the State’s lawmakers and learned people who drove them into this circular drive in any case.

Connecting the Dots:

  1. Compare the Kerala model of development with the Gujarat model?

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in the comment section)

Q.1) Palasava recently has seen in news is associated with which of the following fields?

  1. Fibre crop is grown in Manipur which got GI tag recently
  2. Ancient Ayurveda medicine found to be useful in cancer research
  3. Village in Kutch area where fossils have been discovered
  4. None of the above

Q.2) State rooftop solar attractiveness Index (SARAL) is designed by which body/organisation?

  1. NITI Aayog
  2. The Energy and Research Institute (TERI)
  3. Ministry of Power
  4. None of the above

Q.3) NISHTHA scheme is being implemented by which the Union Ministry?

  1. Ministry of Minority Affairs
  2. Ministry of Women and Child development
  3. Ministry of Human Resources development
  4. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship


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